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The use of examples serves a critical role in creative design practice, but details of this process remain an enigma. This is problematic for both the understanding of design activity as well as for developing more effective design tools. In this paper, we report results of a study that understands and compares how designers (N=11) utilize, manage, and(More)
Online group buying is an effective marketing method. By using online group buying, customers get unbelievable discounts on premium products and services. This not only meets customer demand, but also helps sellers to find new ways to sell products sales and open up new business models, all parties benefit in these transactions. During these bleak economic(More)
Early gravitational energy-momentum investigations gave reference frame dependent pseudotensors; subsequently the quasilocal idea was developed. Quasilocal energy-momentum can be determined by the Hamiltonian boundary term, which also identifies the variables to be held fixed on the boundary. We show that a pseudotensor corresponds to a Hamiltonian boundary(More)
Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal(More)
Traditional approaches to energy-momentum localization led to reference frame dependent pseudotensors. The more modern idea is quasilocal energy-momentum. We take a Hamiltonian approach. The Hamiltonian boundary term gives not only the quasilocal values but also boundary conditions via the Hamiltonian variation boundary principle. Selecting a Hamiltonian(More)
The Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) method is one of the most powerful approaches for understanding properties of an important class of materials with strongly interacting electrons, including magnets and superconductors. It treats these interactions exactly, but the solution of a system of N electrons must be extrapolated to bulk values. Currently N(More)
Tubercle bacillus [TB] is one of the most important chronic infectious diseases that cause millions of deaths annually. While conventional smear microscopy and culture methods are widely used for diagnosis of TB, the former is insensitive, and the latter takes up to 6 to 8 weeks to provide a result, limiting the value of these methods in aiding diagnosis(More)
BACKGROUND The initial diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy depends on physical examination, ultrasound, and serial measurements of total β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) concentrations in serum. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using quantitative analysis of total hCGβ in urine rather than in serum by immunomagnetic(More)
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Fetal fibronectin (fFN), a glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of the amniotic membranes, is the most powerful biomarker for predicting the risk of preterm birth. Biosensors using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) response are potentially useful in quantitatively measuring(More)