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The use of examples serves a critical role in creative design practice, but details of this process remain an enigma. This is problematic for both the understanding of design activity as well as for developing more effective design tools. In this paper, we report results of a study that understands and compares how designers (N=11) utilize, manage, and(More)
Ketamine may affect the host immunity. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are pivotal cytokines produced by macrophages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketamine on the regulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, especially IL-1 beta, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate osteoblast activities. Our previous study showed that NO induced osteoblast apoptosis. This study was further aimed to evaluate the mechanism of NO-induced osteoblast apoptosis from the viewpoints of mitochondrial functions, intracellular oxidative stress, and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein using neonatal rat calvarial(More)
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening syndrome that often occurs in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. During sepsis, inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) can be overproduced, causing tissue and cell injury. Propofol is an intravenous agent used for sedation of ICU patients. Our previous study showed that propofol has immunosuppressive effects(More)
Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate osteoblast activity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of pretreatment with a low concentration of NO on osteoblast injuries induced by a high level of NO and its possible molecular mechanisms. Exposure of osteoblasts to 0.3 mM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, slightly increased cellular NO levels without(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the regulation of osteoblast activities. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of NO pretreatment on oxidative stress-induced osteoblast apoptosis and its possible mechanism using neonatal rat calvarial osteoblasts as the experimental model. Exposure of osteoblasts to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at a low(More)
During inflammation, overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) can damage chondrocytes. In this study, we separately evaluated the toxic effects of exogenous and endogenous NO on human chondrocytes and their possible mechanisms. Human chondrocytes were exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, or a combination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a gram-negative bacterial outer membrane component, can activate macrophages via a toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway. Our previous study has shown that propofol, an intravenous anesthetic reagent, has anti-inflammatory effects. This study was further aimed to evaluate the roles of toll-like receptor 4 in propofol-caused(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare a novel computerized analysis program with visual cardiotocography (CTG) interpretation results. METHODS Sixty-two intrapartum CTG tracings with 20- to 30-minute sections were independently interpreted using a novel computerized analysis program, as well as the visual interpretations of eight obstetricians, to evaluate the baseline(More)