Chia-Chen Chang

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The use of examples serves a critical role in creative design practice, but details of this process remain an enigma. This is problematic for both the understanding of design activity as well as for developing more effective design tools. In this paper, we report results of a study that understands and compares how designers (N=11) utilize, manage, and(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a gram-negative bacterial outer membrane component, can activate macrophages via a toll-like receptor 4-dependent pathway. Our previous study has shown that propofol, an intravenous anesthetic reagent, has anti-inflammatory effects. This study was further aimed to evaluate the roles of toll-like receptor 4 in propofol-caused(More)
During inflammation, overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) can damage chondrocytes. In this study, we separately evaluated the toxic effects of exogenous and endogenous NO on human chondrocytes and their possible mechanisms. Human chondrocytes were exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, or a combination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and(More)
Online group buying is an effective marketing method. By using online group buying, customers get unbelievable discounts on premium products and services. This not only meets customer demand, but also helps sellers to find new ways to sell products sales and open up new business models, all parties benefit in these transactions. During these bleak economic(More)
Early energy-momentum investigations for gravitating systems gave reference frame dependent pseudotensors; later the quasilocal idea was developed. Quasilocal energy-momentum can be determined by the Hamiltonian boundary term, which also identifies the variables to be held fixed on the boundary. We show that a pseudotensor corresponds to a Hamiltonian(More)
Ketamine may affect the host immunity. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are pivotal cytokines produced by macrophages. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ketamine on the regulation of inflammatory cytokine gene expression, especially IL-1 beta, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate osteoblast activities. Our previous study showed that NO induced osteoblast apoptosis. This study was further aimed to evaluate the mechanism of NO-induced osteoblast apoptosis from the viewpoints of mitochondrial functions, intracellular oxidative stress, and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein using neonatal rat calvarial(More)
Sepsis is a serious and life-threatening syndrome that often occurs in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. During sepsis, inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) can be overproduced, causing tissue and cell injury. Propofol is an intravenous agent used for sedation of ICU patients. Our previous study showed that propofol has immunosuppressive effects(More)
Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal(More)
Determining the properties of the two-dimensional Hubbard model is an outstanding problem in physics. Applying recent advances in constrained path auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo techniques and simulating large rectangular supercells, we characterize the magnetic and charge properties in the ground state as a function of doping. At intermediate(More)