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Classic signaling by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) involves its binding to target cells that express the membrane-bound IL-6 receptor α. However, an alternate signaling pathway exists in which soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6Rα) can bind IL-6 and activate target cells that lack mIL-6Rα, such as endothelial cells. This alternate pathway, also(More)
Stromal-epithelial interaction plays a pivotal role to mediate the normal prostate growth, the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer development. Until now, the stromal androgen receptor (AR) functions in the BPH development, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we used a genetic knockout approach to(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in reducing the incidence of post-ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) infections. METHODS A systemic search of PubMED was performed to identify all randomized trials that compared the incidence of post-operative infections in patients without pre-operative urinary tract infections who(More)
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chicks and leads to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. The capsid protein VP2 of IBDV plays an important role in virus binding and cell recognition. VP2 forms a subviral particle (SVP) with immunogenicity similar to that of the IBDV capsid. In the present(More)
Mechanical artificial heart valves rely on reverse flow to close their leaflets. This mechanism creates regurgitation and water hammer effects that may form cavitations, damage blood cells, and cause thromboembolism. This study analyzes closing mechanisms of monoleaflet (Medtronic Hall 27), bileaflet (Carbo-Medics 27; St. Jude Medical 27; Duromedics 29),(More)
Among the clinical complications of mechanical heart valves (MHVs), hemolysis was previously thought to result from Reynolds stresses in turbulent flows. A more recent hypothesis suggests viscous dissipative stresses at spatial scales similar in size to red blood cells may be related to hemolysis in MHVs, but the resolution of current instrumentation is(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY Cavitation occurs during mechanical heart valve closure when the local pressure drops below vapor pressure. The formation of stable gas bubbles may result in gaseous emboli, and secondarily cause transient ischemic attacks or strokes. It is noted that instantaneous valve closure, occluder rebound and high-speed leakage flow(More)
Hemodynamic research shows that thrombosis formation is closely tied to flow field turbulent stress. Design limitations cause flow separation at leaflet edges and the annular valve base, vortex mixing downstream, and high turbulent shear stress. The trileaflet design opens like a physiologic valve with central flow. Leaflet curvature approximates a(More)
In recent years, the autonomous mobile robot has found diverse applications such as home/health care system, surveillance system in civil and military applications and exhibition robot. For surveillance tasks such as moving target pursuit or following and patrol in a region using mobile robot, this paper presents a fuzzy Q-learning, as an intelligent(More)