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NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) belong to both the Nod-like receptor (NLR) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families. NAIPs are known to form an inflammasome with NLRC4, but other in vivo functions remain unexplored. Using mice deficient for all NAIP paralogs (Naip1-6(Δ/Δ)), we show that NAIPs are key regulators of colorectal(More)
CXC chemokines are potential attractants for polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and play an important role in resistance to infectious diseases, such as bovine mastitis. In this study, a bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) and blood PMNs were stimulated with bacterial cell wall components of gram negative and gram positive bacteria, including(More)
BACKGROUND Bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity are considered as potential alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of albusin B (bacteriocin) of Ruminococcus albus 7 expressed by yeast on the growth performance of broiler chickens. Ninety 1-day-old healthy broiler chickens were randomly divided into three(More)
The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease (ND). Recombinant HN (rHN) protein, produced either by direct injection of recombinant viruses containing HN gene or baculovirus expression systems, has been used to elicit immunity against NDV in chickens. In the(More)
The hydrophilic molecular micellar hexa(sulfo-n-butyl)[60]fullerene (FC₄S), first synthesized in 1998 as a photosensitizer (PS) has been reported to exhibit high efficacy for singlet oxygen generation and antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of photoactivated FC₄S for free radical generation and(More)
A problem for dairy cows following milk stasis is to cope with a high risk of intramammary infection and there is a need to initiate an extensive renewal of secretory modules in mammary glands so that milk production in next lactation may be optimized. We recently reported that ultrasonicated Enterococcus faecium SF68 (SF68) is compatible with cow mammary(More)
To systematically analyze large numbers of textual documents, it is often desirable to manage documents (and their metadata) in a multi-dimensional text database (Text Cube). Such structure provides flexibility of understanding local information with different granularities. Moreover, the contextualized analysis derived from cube structure often yields(More)
This work evaluated and correlated the mechanical and nutritional properties of carrots after five freezing/thawing cycles (FTC). Results showed that after one FTC, the mechanical parameters (hardness, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness, resilience, and storage modulus) and the glucose and fructose content sharply decreased and the tangent (Tanδ)(More)
In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins,(More)
Adjuvants are important components of vaccine formulations. Effective adjuvants line innate and adaptive immunity by signaling through pathogen recognition receptors. Synthetic cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) have been shown to have potentials as adjuvants for vaccines. However, the immunostimulatory effect of CpG is(More)
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