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We used spoligotyping to study 500 randomly selected pretreatment Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains isolated in Hong Kong during the 2 year period 1998-9. It was found that amongst all MTB strains studied, the 'Beijing' genotype strains were highly prevalent in our geographic area, representing about 70% of the isolates. Unlike previous observations(More)
Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) typing has been found to allow rapid, reliable, high-throughput genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and may represent a feasible approach to study global M. tuberculosis molecular epidemiology. To evaluate the use of MIRU typing in discriminating drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing(More)
BACKGROUND Reliable DST against second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) is crucial for the management of the increasing burden of patients affected by multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant TB. METHODS This study utilizes 252 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from five countries (Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Korea, Latvia,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increasing evidence has suggested that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) might originate from a distinct subpopulation called cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are responsible for the limited efficacy of conventional therapies. We have previously demonstrated that granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP), a pluripotent growth factor, is upregulated(More)
Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as presently used, has often failed to differentiate clonal strains especially in areas where the Beijing family genotype is predominant. We have evaluated mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRUs), Queen's University of Belfast (QUB) loci and exact tandem repeat (ETR) loci(More)
We studied retrospectively the territory-wide occurrence and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Hong Kong over an 11-year period during which a short-course directly observed therapy ("DOTS-Plus") strategy has been in operation. The overall MDR rate was 2.1% (primary, 1.4% and acquired, 9.5%) and declined at 0.08% per year:(More)
AIM Mutations in rrs [nucleotide (nt) 1401], gyrA gene (codons 90, 91 or 94), tlyA, ethA and thyA genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) were evaluated for their usefulness in predicting treatment outcome of kanamycin (KM), capreomycin (CPM), ofloxacin (OFX), ethionamide (ETH) and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS). METHODS AND RESULTS DNA sequence(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Metabolites in pyogenic brain abscesses, as detected with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy, are different from those found in brain and can help differentiate pyogenic brain abscesses from necrotic neoplasms. We compared the findings of in vivo with those of in vitro MR spectroscopy and categorized the MR spectral patterns with respect(More)
Although membrane perforation was suggested as the means of penetration mediated by IBDV, the cellular mechanism being hijacked to facilitate its entry is largely unknown. In this study, the entry pathway of cell culture adapted IBDV (caIBDV) was characterized in DF-1 chicken embryonic fibroblasts. We observed that the entry of caIBDV was inhibited by(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Granulin-epithelin precursor (GEP) has previously been reported to control cancer growth, invasion, chemo-resistance, and served as novel therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, the nature and characteristics of GEP interacting partner remain unclear. The present study aims to identify and characterize the novel predominant(More)