Chi-Tsai Tang

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BACKGROUND CONTEXT Vascular penetration and injection of corticosteroids into a vessel during lumbosacral transforaminal epidural injection is a suspected cause of myelopathy. Blunt needles have been suggested to avoid vascular penetration, but they are difficult to navigate. Another alternative to the standard long-bevel sharp needles is the short-bevel(More)
STUDY DESIGN Prospective, observational in vivo study. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of simultaneous epidural and vascular contrast injection during cervical transforaminal epidural injections. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA In the lumbar spine, vascular contrast patterns are more than twice as likely to appear simultaneous(More)
Conservative management of low back pain includes the use of lumbar epidural steroid injections, which have become increasingly more popular in the last 20 years. The body of literature regarding the efficacy of these injections is vast, conflicting, and difficult to summarize. This article reviews the updated evidence for efficacy and the indications for(More)
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a disease entity that encompasses both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. During the past decade there have been significant advances in the understanding of prophylaxis and treatment of VTE. There is an extensive research base from which conclusions can be drawn, but the heterogeneity within the rehabilitation(More)
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