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Accurate QRS detection is an important first step for the analysis of heart rate variability. Algorithms based on the differentiated ECG are computationally efficient and hence ideal for real-time analysis of large datasets. Here, we analyze traditional first-derivative based squaring function (Hamilton-Tompkins) and Hilbert transform-based methods for QRS(More)
Inspiratory and expiratory rhythms in mammals are thought to be generated by pacemaker-like neurons in 2 discrete brainstem regions: pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and parafacial respiratory group (pFRG). How these putative pacemakers or pacemaker networks may interact to set the overall respiratory rhythm in synchrony remains unclear. Here, we show that a(More)
Deterministic chaos has been implicated in numerous natural and man-made complex phenomena ranging from quantum to astronomical scales and in disciplines as diverse as meteorology, physiology, ecology, and economics. However, the lack of a definitive test of chaos vs. random noise in experimental time series has led to considerable controversy in many(More)
  • C S Poon
  • 1987
A model of the respiratory control system incorporating both chemical and respiratory neuromechanical feedbacks is proposed to describe the steady-state ventilatory responses to CO2 inhalation and exercise. It is postulated that ventilatory output (VE) is set by the respiratory center to minimize a net operating cost representing the conflicting challenges(More)
Neural plasticity, or malleability of neuronal structure and function, is an important attribute of the mammalian forebrain and is generally thought to be a kernel of biological intelligence. In this review, we examine some reported manifestations of neural plasticity in the cardiorespiratory system and classify them into four functional categories,(More)
DNA methyltransferase I (Dnmt1), the maintenance enzyme for DNA cytosine methylation, is expressed at high levels in the CNS during embryogenesis and after birth. Because embryos deficient for Dnmt1 die at gastrulation, the role of Dnmt1 in the development and function of the nervous system could not be studied by using this mutation. We therefore used the(More)
  • C S Poon
  • 1992
We examined the effects of different modes of airway CO2 load on the ventilation-CO2 output (VE-VCO2) relationship during mild to moderate exercise. Four young and three older male subjects underwent incremental steady-state treadmill exercise while breathing a mixture of CO2 in O2 (CO2 loading) or 100% O2 with and without a large external dead space [DS(More)
This is the fi rst in a series of two articles that look at the lessons for clinical medicine from systems biology. S ince Descartes and the Renaissance, science, including medicine, has taken a distinct path in its analytical evaluation of the natural world [1,2]. This approach can be described as one of " divide and conquer, " and it is rooted in the(More)
A paradox regarding the classic power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) is whether the characteristic high- (HF) and low-frequency (LF) spectral peaks represent stochastic or chaotic phenomena. Resolution of this fundamental issue is key to unraveling the mechanisms of HRV, which is critical to its proper use as a noninvasive marker for(More)