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Neural plasticity, or malleability of neuronal structure and function, is an important attribute of the mammalian forebrain and is generally thought to be a kernel of biological intelligence. In this review, we examine some reported manifestations of neural plasticity in the cardiorespiratory system and classify them into four functional categories,(More)
Inspiratory and expiratory rhythms in mammals are thought to be generated by pacemaker-like neurons in 2 discrete brainstem regions: pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC) and parafacial respiratory group (pFRG). How these putative pacemakers or pacemaker networks may interact to set the overall respiratory rhythm in synchrony remains unclear. Here, we show that a(More)
Accurate QRS detection is an important first step for the analysis of heart rate variability. Algorithms based on the differentiated ECG are computationally efficient and hence ideal for real-time analysis of large datasets. Here, we analyze traditional first-derivative based squaring function (Hamilton-Tompkins) and Hilbert transform-based methods for QRS(More)
Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) is the ability of a synapse to increase or decrease its efficacy in response to specific temporal pairing of pre- and post-synaptic activities. It is widely believed that such activity-dependent long-term changes in synaptic connection strength underlie the brain's capacity of learning and memory. However, current(More)
DNA methyltransferase I (Dnmt1), the maintenance enzyme for DNA cytosine methylation, is expressed at high levels in the CNS during embryogenesis and after birth. Because embryos deficient for Dnmt1 die at gastrulation, the role of Dnmt1 in the development and function of the nervous system could not be studied by using this mutation. We therefore used the(More)
1. Many processes in mammalian and invertebrate central nervous systems exhibit habituation and/or sensitization of their responses to repetitive stimuli. Here, we studied the adaptive behaviours of the respiratory pattern generator in rat on repetitive vagal-afferent stimulation and compared these behaviours obtained in vivo with the reported effects of(More)
An adaptive neural network model that exhibits the optimality and homeostasis characteristics of the respiratory control system is described. Based upon the Hopfield network structure and a postulated Hebb-like respiratory synapse with correlational short-term potentiation, the model is capable of mimicking the normal ventilatory responses to exercise and(More)
To the Editor: Congestive heart failure (CHF) patients demonstrate a significant potentiation of the ventilatory response to muscular exercise under normal PaO 2 and PaCO 2 and normal exercise tolerance, and this important trait has been variously proposed as a predictor of poor prognosis. The augmented exercise hyperpnea is in contrast to the decreased(More)
Current advances in neuromorphic engineering have made it possible to emulate complex neuronal ion channel and intracellular ionic dynamics in real time using highly compact and power-efficient complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) analog very-large-scale-integrated circuit technology. Recently, there has been growing interest in the neuromorphic(More)