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The basic optical switch in optical interconnection networks is a 2times2 optical switch which provides two switching states: the "straight" state and the "swap" state. Several kinds of optical switch have been presented such as polarization selective elements combined with electro-optic halfwave plates. Using these basic optical switches to construct a(More)
Multicast communications have become more and more important recently, especially in their applications in multimedia communication, quality of service (QoS), video conferencing, and distance education. In a point-to-point (PTP) optical communication system, how to provide multicast services is an essential issue. There are some advantages of active(More)
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