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Efficient chemotaxis requires directional sensing and cell polarization. We describe a signaling mechanism involving G beta gamma, PAK-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (PIX alpha), Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase (PAK) 1. This pathway is utilized by chemoattractants to regulate directional sensing and directional migration of myeloid cells. Our(More)
Confocal imaging and time-lapsed videomicroscopy were used to study the directionality, motility, rate of cell movement, and morphologies of phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3K)gamma(-/-) neutrophils undergoing chemotaxis in Zigmond chambers containing N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe gradients. Most of the PI3Kgamma(-/-) neutrophils failed to translocate up the(More)
* move toward higher concentrations of chemoattractants. Summary Cdc42 has been shown to interact with and/or activate proteins known to be involved in cytoskeleton reorgani-Efficient chemotaxis requires directional sensing and zation, including the PAK kinases and Wiscott Aldrich cell polarization. We describe a signaling mechanism syndrome protein (WASP)(More)
The existing literature indicates a crucial role of p38 MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase (p38MAPK) and its downstream target MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2) in ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Accordingly, deletion of MK2 gene should abolish the cardioprotective ability of IPC. Interestingly, we were able to partially precondition the hearts from MK2(-/-)(More)
The directionality control in chemotaxis is the result of a reciprocal regulation of PI3-kinase and PTEN subcellular localization. MK2(-/-) neutrophils have a directionality loss in fMLP-induced chemotaxis. We found that in polarized WT neutrophils PTEN was localized in the uropod region. However, MK2(-/-) neutrophils or p38 MAPK(More)
The neutrophil oxidative burst reaction differentiates ALR/Lt mice, known for an unusual systemic elevation of antioxidant defenses, from ALS/Lt mice, a related strain known for reduced ability to withstand oxidative stress. Neutrophils from marrow of ALS mice produced a normal neutrophil oxidative burst following phorbol ester stimulation. In contrast, ALR(More)
Stress-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases have been implicated in various forms of cardiovascular diseases. Ischemia/reperfusion potentiates activation of p38 MAP kinase (p38MAPK) leading to the activation of its downstream target MAPKAP kinase 2 (MK2). While p38MAPK has been shown to induce pro-apoptotic signal, whether MK2 also generates(More)
In neutrophils, the major substrate of MAPKAPK2 (MK2) is an F-actin binding protein LSP1. Studies using mutants of the two potential Serine phosphorylation sites in LSP1 C-terminal F-actin binding region indicated that the major phosphorylation site for MK2 is Ser243 in murine neutrophils (Ser252 in humans). Human phosphoLSP1 antibodies that recognize(More)
Neutrophils from NOD (Non-Obese Diabetic) mice exhibited reduced migration speed, decreased frequency of directional changes, and loss of directionality during chemotaxis (compared to wild-type [WT] C57BL/6 mice). Additionally, F-actin of chemotaxing NOD neutrophils failed to orient toward the chemoattractant gradient and NOD neutrophil adhesion was(More)
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