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Patent documents contain important research results. However, they are lengthy and rich in technical terminology such that it takes a lot of human efforts for analyses. Automatic tools for assisting patent engineers or decision makers in patent analysis are in great demand. This paper describes a series of text mining techniques that conforms to the(More)
The development of intelligent tutoring systems has long been the focus of applying artificial intelligence and cognitive science in education. A new breed of intelligent learning environments called learning companion systems was developed over a decade ago. In contrast to an intelligent tutoring system, in which a computer mimics an intelligent tutor, the(More)
A cluster labeling algorithm for creating generic titles based on external resources such as WordNet is proposed. Our method first extracts category-specific terms as cluster descriptors. These descriptors are then mapped to generic terms based on a hypernym search algorithm. The proposed method has been evaluated on a patent document collection and a(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to examine bacterial antimicrobial resistance of recurrent urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis because of primary vesicoureteral reflux. METHODS We reviewed data retrospectively for children with documented vesicoureteral reflux in 2 hospitals during a 5-year follow-up period. The patients were(More)
Patent documents contain important research results. They are often collectively analyzed and organized in a visual way to support decision making. However, they are lengthy and rich in technical terminology, and thus require a lot of human effort for analysis. Automatic tools for assisting patent engineers or decision makers in patent analysis are in great(More)
Keywords: Linear programming Simplex method Dual simplex method Degeneracy Shadow price/cost a b s t r a c t In applications of linear programming, shadow prices/costs are as important as the optimal values of decision variables and objective function. When the linear programming problems are primal degenerate, the shadow prices are no longer necessarily(More)
OBJECTIVES To analyze and compare the different ureteral reimplantation techniques to clarify the decision making for surgical treatment of vesicoureteral reflux. METHODS From July 1995 to December 2000, 218 patients underwent antireflux surgery. The first 92 cases (143 ureters) were performed with the transvesical technique of Cohen (group 1), the next(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the postnatal investigation, treatment and outcome of infants with hydronephrosis prenatally diagnosed by ultrasound between 1994 and 1996. STUDY DESIGN In a two-year period we studied 20 infants who presented with hydronephrosis diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by postnatal ultrasound. Unilateral hydronephrosis was(More)