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The development of intelligent tutoring systems has long been the focus of applying artificial intelligence and cognitive science in education. A new breed of intelligent learning environments called learning companion systems was developed over a decade ago. In contrast to an intelligent tutoring system, in which a computer mimics an intelligent tutor, the(More)
Patent documents contain important research results. However, they are lengthy and rich in technical terminology such that it takes a lot of human efforts for analyses. Automatic tools for assisting patent engineers or decision makers in patent analysis are in great demand. This paper describes a series of text mining techniques that conforms to the(More)
Understanding the cell type-specific molecular mechanisms by which distinct signaling pathways combinatorially control proliferation during organogenesis is a central issue in development and disease. Here, we report that the bicoid-related transcription factor Pitx2 is rapidly induced by the Wnt/Dvl/beta-catenin pathway and is required for effective(More)
A cluster labeling algorithm for creating generic titles based on external resources such as WordNet is proposed. Our method first extracts category-specific terms as cluster descriptors. These descriptors are then mapped to generic terms based on a hypernym search algorithm. The proposed method has been evaluated on a patent document collection and a(More)
Keywords: Linear programming Simplex method Dual simplex method Degeneracy Shadow price/cost a b s t r a c t In applications of linear programming, shadow prices/costs are as important as the optimal values of decision variables and objective function. When the linear programming problems are primal degenerate, the shadow prices are no longer necessarily(More)
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Patent documents contain important research results. They are often collectively analyzed and organized in a visual way to support decision making. However, they are lengthy and rich in technical terminology, and thus require a lot of human effort for analysis. Automatic tools for assisting patent engineers or decision makers in patent analysis are in great(More)