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Bioartificial liver (BAL) devices have been developed to treat patients undergoing acute liver failure. One of the most important parameters to consider in designing these devices is the oxygen consumption rate of the seeded hepatocytes which are known to have oxygen consumption rates 10 times higher than most other cell types. Hepatocytes in various(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells form spontaneous aggregates during differentiation, and cell-cell communication in the aggregates plays an important role in differentiation. The development of a controlled differentiation scheme for ES cells has been hindered by the lack of a reliable method to produce uniform aggregate sizes. Conventional techniques, such as(More)
UNLABELLED Orthotopic liver transplantation is the only proven effective treatment for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), but its use is limited because of organ donor shortage, associated high costs, and the requirement for lifelong immunosuppression. FHF is usually accompanied by massive hepatocellular death with compensatory liver regeneration that fails(More)
Progress is being made in developing neuroprotective strategies for traumatic brain injuries; however, there will never be a therapy that will fully preserve neurons that are injured from moderate to severe head injuries. Therefore, to restore neurological function, regenerative strategies will be required. Given the limited regenerative capacity of the(More)
The current application for many potential cell-based treatments for liver failure is limited by the low availability of mature functional hepatocytes. Although adult hepatocytes have a remarkable ability to proliferate in vivo, attempts to proliferate adult hepatocytes in vitro have been less successful. In this study, we investigated the effect of(More)
Two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cultures are the standard in vitro model for cancer research. However, they fail to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3D) environment and quickly lose their function. In this study, we developed a new 3D multicellular heterospheroid tumor model in a collagen hydrogel culture system that more closely mimics the in vivo tumor(More)
One of the major hurdles of cellular therapies for the treatment of liver failure is the low availability of functional human hepatocytes. While embryonic stem (ES) cells represent a potential cell source for therapy, current methods for differentiation result in mixed cell populations or low yields of the cells of interest. Here we describe a rapid, direct(More)
An effective paradigm for transplanting large numbers of neural stem cells after central nervous system (CNS) injury has yet to be established. Biomaterial scaffolds have shown promise in cell transplantation and in regenerative medicine, but improved scaffolds are needed. In this study we designed and optimized multifunctional and biocompatible(More)
The in vitro generation of a three-dimensional (3-D) myocardial tissue-like construct employing cells, biomaterials, and biomolecules is a promising strategy in cardiac tissue regeneration, drug testing, and tissue engineering applications. Despite significant progress in this field, current cardiac tissue models are not yet able to stably maintain(More)
In vitro expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been employed to obtain sufficient numbers of stem cells for successful engraftment after HSC transplantation. A three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor system with a heparin-chitosan scaffold was designed and evaluated for its capability to support maintenance and expansion of HSCs. Porous chitosan(More)