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Knockout of lprG results in decreased virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in mice. MTB lipoprotein LprG has TLR2 agonist activity, which is thought to be dependent on its N-terminal triacylation. Unexpectedly, here we find that nonacylated LprG retains TLR2 activity. Moreover, we show LprG association with triacylated glycolipid TLR2 agonists(More)
An important aspect of immune monitoring for vaccine development, clinical trials, and research is the detection, measurement, and comparison of antigen-specific T-cells from subject samples under different conditions. Antigen-specific T-cells compose a very small fraction of total T-cells. Developments in cytometry technology over the past five years have(More)
Microbial lipids activate T cells by binding directly to CD1 and T cell receptors (TCRs) or by indirect effects on antigen-presenting cells involving induction of lipid autoantigens, CD1 transcription, or cytokine release. To distinguish among direct and indirect mechanisms, we developed fluorescent human CD1b tetramers and measured T cell staining. CD1b(More)
CD1 proteins evolved to present diverse lipid Ags to T cells. In comparison with MHC proteins, CD1 proteins exhibit minimal allelic diversity as a result of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, it is unknown if common SNPs in gene regulatory regions affect CD1 expression and function. We report surprising diversity in patterns of(More)
CD1 proteins are antigen-presenting molecules that evolved to present lipids rather than peptides to T cells. However, unlike major histocompatibility complex genes, CD1 genes show low rates of polymorphism and have not been clearly associated with human disease. We report that an intronic polymorphism in CD1A (rs411089) is associated with susceptibility to(More)
Most vaccines and basic studies of T cell epitopes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis emphasize water-soluble proteins that are secreted into the extracellular space and presented in the context of MHC class II. Much less is known about the role of Ags retained within the cell wall. We used polyclonal T cells from infected humans to probe for responses to(More)
Advances in flow cytometry and other single-cell technologies have enabled high-dimensional, high-throughput measurements of individual cells as well as the interrogation of cell population heterogeneity. However, in many instances, computational tools to analyze the wealth of data generated by these technologies are lacking. Here, we present a(More)
Although small molecules shed from pathogens are widely used to diagnose infection, such tests have not been widely implemented for tuberculosis. Here we show that the recently identified compound, 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), accumulates to comprise >1% of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipid. In vitro and in vivo, two isomers of TbAd were detected(More)
A glycerophospholipid (1-O-tuberculostearoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated from the reference strain H37Rv. The molecular structure of this tuberculostearoyl [(R)-10-methyloctadecyl] and palmitoyl containing phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) has been resolved. The substitution pattern on the(More)