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Evidence from comparative studies of gene expression and evolution suggest that human neocortical neurons may be characterized by unusually high levels of energy metabolism. The current study examined whether there is a disproportionate increase in glial cell density in the human frontal cortex in comparison with other anthropoid primate species (New World(More)
The cortical circuits subserving neural processing of human language are localized to the inferior frontal operculum and the posterior perisylvian region. Functional language dominance has been related to anatomical asymmetry of Broca's area and the planum temporale. The evolutionary history of these asymmetric patterns, however, remains obscure. Although(More)
The neocortex of primates contains several distinct neuron subtypes. Among these, Betz cells of primary motor cortex and Meynert cells of primary visual cortex are of particular interest for their potential role in specialized sensorimotor adaptations of primates. Betz cells are involved in setting muscle tone prior to fine motor output and Meynert cells(More)
It has been argued that changes in the relative sizes of visual system structures predated an increase in brain size and provide evidence of brain reorganization in hominins. However, data about the volume and anatomical limits of visual brain structures in the extant taxa phylogenetically closest to humans-the apes-remain scarce, thus complicating tests of(More)
A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian(More)
Since the last common ancestor shared by modern humans, chimpanzees and bonobos, the lineage leading to Homo sapiens has undergone a substantial change in brain size and organization. As a result, modern humans display striking differences from the living apes in the realm of cognition and linguistic expression. In this article, we review the evolutionary(More)
There is a well-established allometric relationship between brain and body mass in mammals. Deviation of relatively increased brain size from this pattern appears to coincide with enhanced cognitive abilities. To examine whether there is a phylogenetic structure to such episodes of changes in encephalization across mammals, we used phylogenetic techniques(More)
A major focus of comparative neuroanatomy has been on whether the mammalian brain evolves in a concerted or a mosaic fashion. Workers have examined variation in the volume of different brain regions across taxa to test the degree to which selection is constrained by the timing of events in neural development. Whether a conserved neurogenetic program in the(More)
Nerve myelination facilitates saltatory action potential conduction and exhibits spatiotemporal variation during development associated with the acquisition of behavioral and cognitive maturity. Although human cognitive development is unique, it is not known whether the ontogenetic progression of myelination in the human neocortex is evolutionarily(More)
OBJECTIVES Von Economo neurons (VENs) are defined by their thin, elongated cell body and long dendrites projecting from apical and basal ends. These distinctive neurons are mostly present in anterior cingulate (ACC) and fronto-insular (FI) cortex, with particularly high densities in cetaceans, elephants, and hominoid primates (i.e., humans and apes). This(More)