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Signaling proteins are thought to be tightly regulated spatially and temporally in order to generate specific and localized effects. For Rac and other small guanosine triphosphatases, binding to guanosine triphosphate leads to interaction with downstream targets and regulates subcellular localization. A method called FLAIR (fluorescence activation indicator(More)
We determine paleoelevation of the Sierra Nevada, California, by tracking the effect of topography on precipitation, as recorded in hydrogen isotopes of kaolinite exposed in gold-bearing river deposits from the Eocene Yuba River. The data, compared with the modern isotopic composition of precipitation, show that about 40 to 50 million years ago the Sierra(More)
Stable oxygen isotope ratios (delta(18)O) of Precambrian cherts have been used to establish much of our understanding of the early climate history of Earth and suggest that ocean temperatures during the Archaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago) were between 55 degrees C and 85 degrees C (ref. 2). But, because of uncertainty in the delta(18)O of(More)
The Yarlung Tsangpo–Brahmaputra river drains a large portion of the Himalaya and southern Tibetan plateau, including the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, one of the most tectonically active regions on the globe. We measured the solute chemistry of 161 streams and major tributaries of the Tsangpo–Brahmaputra to examine the effect of tectonic, climatic, and(More)
Oxygen isotope zoning was examined within garnet with the use of the stable isotope laser probe. Four metamorphic garnets from the regional metamorphic terrane in Vermont and the skarn deposit at Carr Fork, Utah, were examined and were found to be concentrically zoned in delta(18)O values. The largest variations in delta(18)O values were observed in the(More)
The ability of cells to recognize and respond with directed motility to chemoattractant agents is critical to normal physiological function. Neutrophils represent the prototypic chemotactic cell in that they respond to signals initiated through the binding of bacterial peptides and other chemokines to G protein-coupled receptors with speeds of up to 30(More)
We used the natural abundance of stable isotopes (carbon and hydrogen) in the feathers of a neotropical migrant songbird to determine where birds from particular breeding areas spend the winter and the extent to which breeding populations mix in winter quarters. We show that most birds wintering on western Caribbean islands come from the northern portion of(More)
The geochemical composition of the Earth's upper mantle is thought to reflect 4.5 billion years of melt extraction, as well as the recycling of crustal materials. The fractionation of rhenium and osmium during partial melting in the upper mantle makes the Re-Os isotopic system well suited for tracing the extraction of melt and recycling of the resulting(More)
  • 2002
The Nanga Parbat Massif is located in northwestern Pakistan and occurs in the interior of the western syntaxis of the Himalaya. Recent studies have shown that the massif exposes an active metamorphic anomaly developed in Indian-Plate rocks exhumed from beneath and surrounded by rocks of the Kohistan/Ladakh island-arc. Geochemical and geophysical data from(More)