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We review the biogeography of microorganisms in light of the biogeography of macroorganisms. A large body of research supports the idea that free-living microbial taxa exhibit biogeographic patterns. Current evidence confirms that, as proposed by the Baas-Becking hypothesis, 'the environment selects' and is, in part, responsible for spatial variation in(More)
Ribosomal Database Project (RDP; http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/) provides the research community with aligned and annotated rRNA gene sequence data, along with tools to allow researchers to analyze their own rRNA gene sequences in the RDP framework. RDP data and tools are utilized in fields as diverse as human health, microbial ecology, environmental microbiology,(More)
The ability of terminal restriction fragment (T-RFLP or TRF) profiles of 16S rRNA genes to provide useful information about the relative diversity of complex microbial communities was investigated by comparison with other methods. Four soil communities representing two pinyon rhizosphere and two between-tree (interspace) soil environments were compared by(More)
Terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis of 16S rRNA genes is an increasingly popular method for rapid comparison of microbial communities, but analysis of the data is still in a developmental stage. We assessed the phylogenetic resolution and reproducibility of TRF profiles in order to evaluate the limitations of the method, and we developed an(More)
To assess the distribution and diversity of members of the recently identified bacterial kingdom Acidobacterium, members of this kingdom present in 43 environmental samples were surveyed by PCR amplification. A primer designed to amplify rRNA gene sequences (ribosomal DNAs [rDNAs]) from most known members of the kingdom was used to interrogate bulk DNA(More)
Techniques based on amplification of 16S rRNA genes for comparing bacterial communities are now widely used in microbial ecology, but calibration of these techniques with traditional tools, such as cultivation, has been conspicuously absent. In this study, we compared levels of bacterial community diversity in two pinyon rhizosphere soil samples and two(More)
We present evidence that the heritable genetic variation within individual species, especially dominant and keystone species, has community and ecosystem consequences. These consequences represent extended phenotypes, i.e., the effects of genes at levels higher than the population. Using diverse examples from microbes to vertebrates, we demonstrate that the(More)
The complete genomes of three strains from the phylum Acidobacteria were compared. Phylogenetic analysis placed them as a unique phylum. They share genomic traits with members of the Proteobacteria, the Cyanobacteria, and the Fungi. The three strains appear to be versatile heterotrophs. Genomic and culture traits indicate the use of carbon sources that span(More)
We have performed a phylogenetic survey of microbial species present in two soils from northern Arizona. Microbial DNA was purified directly from soil samples and subjected to PCR amplification with primers specific for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences (rDNAs). Clone libraries from the two soils were constructed, and 60 clone inserts were partially(More)
The abundance and composition of bacteria of the phylum Acidobacteria were surveyed in subsurface sediments from uranium-contaminated sites using amplification of 16S rRNA genes followed by clone/sequence analysis. Analysis of sequences from this study and public databases produced a revised and greatly expanded phylogeny of the Acidobacteria phylum(More)