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Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT, E. C. 2.3.1.87) is the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to serotonin to form N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in the indoleamine biosynthetic pathway. Bovine pineal AA-NAT, partially purified on an anion exchange column, displayed an 8-fold higher enzymatic activity in pineals from(More)
Nuclear movement relative to cell bodies is a fundamental process during certain aspects of mammalian retinal development. During the generation of photoreceptor cells in the cell division cycle, the nuclei of progenitors oscillate between the apical and basal surfaces of the neuroblastic layer (NBL). This process is termed interkinetic nuclear migration(More)
PURPOSE Because interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is expressed before being needed in its presumptive role in the visual cycle, we tested whether it controls eye growth during development. METHODS The eyes of congenic IRBP knockout (KO) and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice ranging in age from postnatal day (P)2 to P440 were compared by(More)
Desensitization plays an important role in the rapid termination of G-protein signaling pathways. This process, which involves phosphorylation by a G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) followed by arrestin binding, has been studied extensively in the rod photoreceptor cell of the mammalian retina. In contrast, less is known regarding desensitization in(More)
The retinas of mice null for the neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor (Nrl-/-) contain no rods but are populated instead with photoreceptors that on ultrastructural, histochemical, and molecular criteria appear cone like. To characterize these photoreceptors functionally, responses of single photoreceptors of Nrl-/- mice were recorded with(More)
The shutoff mechanisms of the rod visual transduction cascade involve G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 1 (GRK1) phosphorylation of light-activated rhodopsin (R*) followed by rod arrestin binding. Deactivation of the cone phototransduction cascade in the mammalian retina is delineated poorly. In this study we sought to explore the potential(More)
High acuity, color vision in humans is initiated in cones by a receptor/G-protein-linked phototransduction cascade. G-protein-linked receptors are rapidly deactivated by receptor phosphorylation and the binding of a member of the "arrestin" family of proteins. Divergence in amino acid sequence at the carboxyl terminus of S-antigen (rod photoreceptor(More)
PURPOSE Arrestins are a superfamily of regulatory proteins that down-regulate activated and phosphorylated G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Cone arrestin (CAR) is expressed in cone photoreceptors and pinealocytes and may contribute to the shutoff mechanisms associtated with high acuity color vision. To initiate a study of CAR's function in cone(More)
Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) is the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of the hormone melatonin. We have examined the localization of expression of the mRNA encoding HIOMT by in situ hybridization in the 3-day-old and adult chicken retina and pineal gland. The riboprobe utilized for this study was transcribed from the(More)
Neuropeptide Y is colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic fibers innervating the rat pineal gland. In this article we present a study of the effects and mechanisms of action of neuropeptide Y on the pineal noradrenergic transmission, the main input leading to the rhythmic secretion of melatonin. At the presynaptic level, neuropeptide Y inhibits by(More)