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I used novel quantitative measures to assess the impact of fruit seasonality on changes in diet and energy balance during 4918 hours of observation on <60 orangutans in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, from September 1994 through September 1995. During this period a mast fruiting occurred, resulting in large fluctuations in fruit(More)
Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities(More)
Across broad taxonomic groups, life history models predict that increased ecological predictability will lead to conservative investment in reproductive effort. Within species, however, organisms are predicted to have increased reproductive rates under improved environmental conditions. It is not clear how these models apply to closely-related species. In(More)
We conducted the first orangutan population census of Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, between April and September 2001. We used a refined line-transect nest-count methodology utilizing transect recounts to survey 69 km at 14 sites within the park and 14.2 km in the buffer zone. We present the first Bornean orangutan density estimate(More)
Sundaland, a tropical hotspot of biodiversity comprising Borneo and Sumatra among other islands, the Malay Peninsula, and a shallow sea, has been subject to dramatic environmental processes. Thus, it presents an ideal opportunity to investigate the role of environmental mechanisms in shaping species distribution and diversity. We investigated the population(More)
Intersexual conflicts over mating can engender antagonistic coevolution of strategies, such as coercion by males and selective resistance by females. Orangutans are exceptional among mammals for their high levels of forced copulation. This has typically been viewed as an alternative mating tactic used by the competitively disadvantaged unflanged male morph,(More)
Assessment of energetic condition is a critical tool for behavioral and reproductive ecologists. However, accurate quantification of energy intake and expenditure is labor-intensive, and it can be problematic for field scientists to obtain regular data on individual animals. C-peptide, a polypeptide segment of the proinsulin molecule that is secreted along(More)
Geographic variation in the presence of skilled behavior may reflect geographic variation in genetic predispositions or ecological conditions (accompanied by reliable expression during development), or it may reflect the vagaries of invention and the appropriate social conditions for persistence. In this study, we compare the feeding techniques and(More)
The mostly solitary ranging of orangutans and the large areas over which they traverse have hampered quantification of Bornean orangutan ranging patterns and feeding competition. Because of their semisolitary existence, female orangutans have few competitive interactions among themselves. However, contest and scramble types of competition occur, and(More)