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A review of the literature suggests that few studies use formative indicator measurement models, even though they should. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to (a) discuss the distinction between formative and reflective measurement models, (b) develop a set of conceptual criteria that can be used to determine whether a construct should be modeled(More)
The purpose of this study was to review the distinction between formative- and reflective-indicator measurement models, articulate a set of criteria for deciding whether measures are formative or reflective, illustrate some commonly researched constructs that have formative indicators, empirically test the effects of measurement model misspecification using(More)
It has been more than 40 years since Blalock (1964) noted the distinction between what he called " cause " (formative) and " effect " (reflective) indicators of latent variables, and three decades since the academic literature recognized that some SEM measurement models don't fit classical test theory's assumptions about the direction of causality of the(More)
We propose that brand equity can influence job seekers' perceptions of job opportunities. Our results suggest that job seekers view working for a strong brand as a way to build the power of their résumé. The belief that strong brands build powerful résumés is, in part, the outcome of job seekers' beliefs that working for a strong brand will allow them to(More)
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