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ACG had full access to all of the data in the study and take full responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. LM conducted the resistance testing. SSAK, QAK and CB took responsibility for writing the paper and all co-authors contributed to critical revisions of the paper. The other authors have no financial conflicts(More)
BACKGROUND Women in Africa, especially young women, have very high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates that cannot be fully explained by behavioral risks. We investigated whether genital inflammation influenced HIV acquisition in this group. METHODS Twelve selected cytokines, including 9 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interleukin(More)
BACKGROUND The rates of death are high among patients with coinfection with tuberculosis and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The optimal timing for the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in relation to tuberculosis therapy remains controversial. METHODS In an open-label, randomized, controlled trial in Durban, South Africa, we assigned 642(More)
BACKGROUND We previously reported that integrating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with tuberculosis treatment reduces mortality. However, the timing for the initiation of ART during tuberculosis treatment remains unresolved. METHODS We conducted a three-group, open-label, randomized, controlled trial in South Africa involving 642 ambulatory patients, all(More)
Reliable data from South Africa emanating from WHO recommendations for the Safe Motherhood programme underscores HIV/AIDS as the most common cause of maternal deaths. The strengthening of HIV services for pregnant women especially in countries with a high burden of HIV infection will reduce HIV-related and un-related maternal mortality rates. High-quality(More)
BACKGROUND Young women in sub-Saharan Africa bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infection compared to men but have limited options to reduce their HIV risk. Microbicides could fill an important HIV prevention gap for sexually active women who are unable to successfully negotiate mutual monogamy or condom use. PURPOSE This paper describes the baseline(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a public health priority, particularly in regions where the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high. In most developing countries, STIs are managed syndromically. We assessed the adequacy of syndromic diagnosis of STIs, compared with laboratory(More)
Although intravenous drug use is the major route of transmission in several countries, sexual transmission is the dominant mode of HIV spread globally, with a concomitant epidemic in infants borne to HIV-infected mothers. The HIV epidemic varies substantially from one geographic area to another, and three broad epidemic categories describe the diversity of(More)
OBJECTIVE Women who become pregnant during the conduct of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus prevention trials are taken off the study product for safety reasons. High pregnancy rates can compromise statistical integrity in these trials. The comprehensive contraceptive curriculum developed for the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South(More)