Cheryl A. Winkler

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The chemokine receptor 5 (CKR5) protein serves as a secondary receptor on CD4(+) T lymphocytes for certain strains of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). The CKR5 structural gene was mapped to human chromosome 3p21, and a 32-base pair deletion allele (CKR5Delta32) was identified that is present at a frequency of approximately0.10 in the Caucasian(More)
The increased burden of chronic kidney and end-stage kidney diseases (ESKD) in populations of African ancestry has been largely unexplained. To identify genetic variants predisposing to idiopathic and HIV-1–associated focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), we carried out an admixture-mapping linkage-disequilibrium genome scan on 190 African American(More)
As end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has a four times higher incidence in African Americans compared to European Americans, we hypothesized that susceptibility alleles for ESRD have a higher frequency in the West African than the European gene pool. We carried out a genome-wide admixture scan in 1,372 ESRD cases and 806 controls and found a highly significant(More)
African Americans have higher rates of kidney disease than European Americans. Here, we show that, in African Americans, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and hypertension-attributed end-stage kidney disease (H-ESKD) are associated with two independent sequence variants in the APOL1 gene on chromosome 22 {FSGS odds ratio = 10.5 [95% confidence(More)
Stromal-derived factor (SDF-1) is the principal ligand for CXCR4, a coreceptor with CD4 for T lymphocyte cell line-tropic human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). A common polymorphism, SDF1-3'A, was identified in an evolutionarily conserved segment of the 3' untranslated region of the SDF-1 structural gene transcript. In the homozygous state,(More)
Admixture mapping (also known as "mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium," or MALD) provides a way of localizing genes that cause disease, in admixed ethnic groups such as African Americans, with approximately 100 times fewer markers than are required for whole-genome haplotype scans. However, it has not been possible to perform powerful scans with(More)
Loss of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), a component of the filtration complex in the kidney, causes death in mice at 6 weeks of age. Mice with CD2AP haploinsufficiency developed glomerular changes at 9 months of age and had increased susceptibility to glomerular injury by nephrotoxic antibodies or immune complexes. Electron microscopic analysis of podocytes(More)
The critical role of chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) in human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection and pathogenesis prompted a search for polymorphisms in other chemokine receptor genes that mediate HIV-1 disease progression. A mutation (CCR2-64I) within the first transmembrane region of the CCR2 chemokine and HIV-1 receptor gene is(More)
A population genetic survey of over 200 structural loci previously revealed that the South African cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) has an extreme paucity of genetic variability, probably as a consequence of a severe population bottleneck in its recent past. The genetic monomorphism of the species is here extended to the major histocompatibility complex,(More)
The CCR5 gene encodes a cell surface chemokine receptor molecule that serves as the principal coreceptor, with CD4, for macrophage-tropic (R5) strains of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). Genetic association analysis of five cohorts of people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) revealed that infected individuals homozygous for a(More)