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OBJECTIVE Prominent inflammation with formation of ectopic B-cell follicle-like structures in the meninges in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (SPMS) is associated with extensive cortical pathology and an exacerbated disease course. Our objective was to evaluate the cellular substrates of the cortical damage to understand the role of meningeal(More)
Meningeal inflammation in the form of ectopic lymphoid-like structures has been suggested to play a prominent role in the development of cerebral cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and distribution of B cell follicle-like structures in an extensive collection of cases with secondary(More)
INTRODUCTION Activation of the mTOR pathway has been linked to the cytopathology and epileptogenicity of malformations, specifically Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) and Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC). Experimental and clinical trials have shown than mTOR inhibitors have anti-epileptogenic effects in TS. Dysmorphic neurones and balloon cells are hallmarks of FCDIIb(More)
BACKGROUND De novo interictal psychosis, albeit uncommon, can develop in patients following temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. Pathological alterations of the dentate gyrus, including cytoarchitectural changes, immaturity and axonal reorganization that occur in epilepsy, may also underpin co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study candidate(More)
High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may improve the preoperative diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in epilepsy. Quantitative 9.4T MRI was carried out (T1, T2, T2* and magnetization transfer ratio) on 13 cortical resections, representing pathologically confirmed FCD (five cases) and normal cortex. Quantitative immunohistochemistry for(More)
SEE BERNASCONI DOI101093/AWW202 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Temporal lobe epilepsy, the most prevalent form of chronic focal epilepsy, is associated with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment but the responsible underlying pathological mechanisms are unknown. Tau, the microtubule-associated protein, is a hallmark of several(More)
OBJECTIVE This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) that is distinct from focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS Surgical specimens from 20 young adults with FLE (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of(More)
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