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OBJECTIVE Prominent inflammation with formation of ectopic B-cell follicle-like structures in the meninges in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (SPMS) is associated with extensive cortical pathology and an exacerbated disease course. Our objective was to evaluate the cellular substrates of the cortical damage to understand the role of meningeal(More)
Meningeal inflammation in the form of ectopic lymphoid-like structures has been suggested to play a prominent role in the development of cerebral cortical grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and distribution of B cell follicle-like structures in an extensive collection of cases with secondary(More)
The authors attempted to simultaneously measure cardiac output by thermodilution (COtd), thoracic bioimpedance (CObi), and suprasternal Doppler ultrasound (COdopp) in 68 patients. Subgroups separately compared included patients whose lungs were mechanically ventilated, patients undergoing cardiac surgery, aortic surgery, patients with dysrhythmias, and(More)
INTRODUCTION Activation of the mTOR pathway has been linked to the cytopathology and epileptogenicity of malformations, specifically Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) and Tuberous Sclerosis (TSC). Experimental and clinical trials have shown than mTOR inhibitors have anti-epileptogenic effects in TS. Dysmorphic neurones and balloon cells are hallmarks of FCDIIb(More)
PURPOSE Patients with Wilms' tumors (WT) who carry constitutional mutations in the WT1 gene have been described in case reports and small case series. We sought to determine the frequency of constitutional WT1 mutations in a larger cohort, and to identify clinical manifestations associated with the risk for carrying a WT1 mutation. METHODS We collected(More)
Nine previously untrained health professionals learned to measure cardiac output (Qt) by suprasternal continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound (QtDopp) and by thoracic bioimpedance (Qtbi). Each received standardized written, videotaped, and individual instruction. First the novice, then the reference examiner, measured QtDopp or Qtbi in triplicate in an adult(More)
High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may improve the preoperative diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) in epilepsy. Quantitative 9.4T MRI was carried out (T1, T2, T2* and magnetization transfer ratio) on 13 cortical resections, representing pathologically confirmed FCD (five cases) and normal cortex. Quantitative immunohistochemistry for(More)
OBJECTIVE This study reports on a novel brain pathology in young patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) that is distinct from focal cortical dysplasia (FCD). METHODS Surgical specimens from 20 young adults with FLE (mean age, 30 years) were investigated with histological/immunohistochemical markers for cortical laminar architecture, mammalian target of(More)
Neuropathological subtypes of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in temporal lobe epilepsy (The 2013 International League Against Epilepsy classification) are based on the qualitative assessment of patterns of neuronal loss with NeuN. In practice, some cases appear indeterminate between type 1 (CA1 and CA4 loss) and type 2 HS (CA1 loss) and we predicted that MAP2(More)