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Factors associated with concentrations of energy-yielding nutrients in human milk were examined at 3, 6, 9, and 12 mo postpartum in the DARLING (Davis Area Research on Lactation, Infant Nutrition and Growth) Study. Samples were obtained by complete expression of alternate breasts over 24 h. Milk energy density was highly correlated with lipid concentration;(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnancy may contribute to overweight and obesity. PURPOSE The primary objective of Active Mothers Postpartum was to promote a reduction in BMI through 24-months postpartum via sustainable lifestyle changes. DESIGN Behavioral intervention RCT to enhance postpartum weight loss. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS A total of 450 overweight or obese women,(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnancy and the postpartum period have been suggested as important contributors to overweight and obesity among women. This paper presents the design, rationale, and baseline participant characteristics of a randomized controlled intervention trial to enhance weight loss in postpartum women who entered pregnancy overweight or obese. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND The retention of weight gained during pregnancy may contribute to obesity. Lactation should promote weight loss, but weight loss is highly variable among lactating women. The risks associated with the restriction of energy intake during lactation have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether weight loss by(More)
BACKGROUND The potential risks and benefits of regular exercise during lactation have not been adequately evaluated. We investigated whether regular aerobic exercise had any effects on the volume or composition of breast milk. METHODS Six to eight weeks post partum, 33 sedentary women whose infants were being exclusively breast-fed were randomly assigned(More)
Persons with neuromuscular disease (NMD) have progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal muscle, reduced fat-free mass, and increased fat mass relative to healthy control subjects. To test the hypothesis that resting energy expenditure (REE), estimated total daily energy expenditure (TEE), and physical activity patterns are altered in ambulatory adults(More)
BACKGROUND Children of obese parents are more likely to become obese than children of normal-weight parents. However, there is little information regarding the diet intakes of children of obese parents. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine the diet quality of preschoolers and their overweight/obese mothers, whether maternal and child diet quality were(More)
BACKGROUND Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a frequent cause of mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Human milk (HM) feeding has been associated with lower risk of NEC. However, mothers of VLBW infants often experience insufficient milk production, resulting in mixed feedings of HM and formula. Moreover, medical complications(More)
Research over the past 20 years has focused on the safety of physical activity during pregnancy. Guidelines for health care providers and pregnant/postpartum women have been developed from the results of these studies. The overwhelming results of most studies have shown few negative effects on the pregnancy of a healthy gravida, but rather, be beneficial to(More)
OBJECTIVE Although it is well documented that breastfeeding promotes health and development of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, lactation initiation among mothers of VLBW infants is low. Mothers are anxious about the health of their children, and medical staff may be reluctant to promote breastfeeding out of concern for increasing that anxiety.(More)