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OBJECTIVE We sought to determine the range and extent of neurologic complications due to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection (pH1N1'09) in children hospitalized with influenza. METHODS Active hospital-based surveillance in 6 Australian tertiary pediatric referral centers between June 1 and September 30, 2009, for children aged <15 years with(More)
BACKGROUND Antiviral prophylaxis is commonly used in recipients of solid-organ transplants with the aim of preventing the clinical syndrome associated with cytomegalovirus infection. We undertook a systematic review to investigate whether this approach affects risks of cytomegalovirus disease and death. METHODS Randomised controlled trials of prophylaxis(More)
Mononuclear cells in umbilical-cord blood display allergen-specific reactivity, but how allergen exposure occurs in utero is unknown. We investigated the presence of a common inhalant allergen (Der p 1), to which mothers are exposed throughout pregnancy, by ELISA in matched maternal blood and amniotic fluid samples at 16-17 weeks of gestation, and in(More)
The pathology associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis results largely from activation of immune-associated pathways. We systematically investigated the production of IFN subtypes, as well as their influence on pathology, in a mouse model of S. pneumoniae meningitis. Despite the occurrence of a mixed IFN type I/II gene signature, no evidence for(More)
Immunologic "immaturity" is often blamed for the increased susceptibility of newborn humans to infection, but the precise mechanisms and details of immunologic development remain somewhat obscure. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are two of the more common severe infectious agents of the fetal and newborn periods. HSV infection in the(More)
Mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a clinico-radiological syndrome characterized by a transient mild encephalopathy and a reversible lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum on MRI. This syndrome has almost universally been described in children from Japan and East Asia. Here we describe seven cases of MERS occurring in(More)
BACKGROUND Transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza and the recent pandemic H1N1 viruses to domestic cats and other felids creates concern because of the morbidity and mortality associated with human infections as well as disease in the infected animals. Experimental infections have demonstrated transmission of influenza viruses in cats. (More)
IMPORTANCE Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes a spectrum of neurological complications with significant morbidity and mortality. Further understanding of the characteristics of EV71-related neurological disease, factors related to outcome, and potential responsiveness to treatments is important in developing therapeutic guidelines. OBJECTIVE To further(More)