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Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy was recently shown to be due to mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, which encodes antiquitin, an enzyme that catalyses the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent dehydrogenation of l-alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde/L-Delta1-piperideine 6-carboxylate. However, whilst this is a highly treatable disorder, there is general(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial failure has a central role in the complex pathophysiology of septic shock and contributes to organ failure and death. During the sepsis-induced inflammatory process, specific factors are released that depress myocardial contractile function. We aimed to identify these mediators of myocardial depression in meningococcal septic shock. (More)
OBJECTIVE To document the long-term outcome of the 83 children with difficult-to-control seizures who were enrolled prospectively in a study of the efficacy of the ketogenic diet and who had remained on the diet for 1 year. METHODS A total of 150 consecutive children were entered prospectively into a study of the ketogenic diet's efficacy and(More)
Genetic defects in the IFN-gamma response pathway cause unique susceptibility to intracellular pathogens, particularly mycobacteria, but are rare and do not explain mycobacterial disease in the majority of affected patients. We postulated that acquired defects in macrophage activation by IFN-gamma may cause a similar immunological phenotype and thus explain(More)
In the 1980s the outcome of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis was shown to be dramatically improved with aciclovir treatment. Delays in starting treatment, particularly beyond 48 h after hospital admission, are associated with a worse prognosis. Several comprehensive reviews of the investigation and management of encephalitis have been published.(More)
Microarrays have become a standard tool for investigating gene function and more complex microarray experiments are increasingly being conducted. For example, an experiment may involve samples from several groups or may investigate changes in gene expression over time for several subjects, leading to large three-way data sets. In response to this increase(More)
BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is a severe and rare inflammatory condition, where relapses are predictive of disability. METHODS We describe a national paediatric NMO cohort's clinical, MRI, outcome, and prognostic features in relation to Aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab) status, and compared to a non NMO control cohort. OBSERVATIONS Twenty NMO(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the utility and safety of rituximab in pediatric autoimmune and inflammatory disorders of the CNS. METHODS Multicenter retrospective study. RESULTS A total of 144 children and adolescents (median age 8 years, range 0.7-17; 103 female) with NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis (n = 39), opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (n = 32),(More)
SUMMARY AND KEY RECOMMENDATIONS: The aim of these guidelines is to describe a practical but evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system tuberculosis in children and adults. We have presented guidance on tuberculous meningitis (TBM), intra-cerebral tuberculoma without meningitis, and tuberculosis affecting the spinal(More)
PURPOSE To determine the long-term outcome of children with difficult-to-control seizures who remained on the ketogenic diet for <1 year. METHODS Between 1994 and 1996, 150 children with epilepsy, refractory to at least two medications, initiated the ketogenic diet according to the Hopkins protocol. Three to six years after diet initiation, all the(More)