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HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual's knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in(More)
OBJECTIVE To document partner referral rates at health centres with improved STD services, and to determine factors contributing to successful referral. METHODS Partner referral was initiated as part of the upgrading of STD services in primary care health facilities in two semi-urban Rwanda towns. After syndromic management of the presenting complaint,(More)
HIV transmission and occurrence of AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) is increasing, while access to ART in the region lags behind most low to middle-income countries. Like in other parts of the world, there is a growing feminization of the epidemic, and men and women each confront unique barriers to adequate HIV prevention and treatment(More)
OBJECTIVE To measure HIV prevalence and related risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Cairo, Egypt in the context of the first survey wave of an integrated biological and behavioral surveillance system. DESIGN AND METHODS Given the hidden nature of injection drug use, we used the peer-referral methodology of respondent-driven sampling(More)
OBJECTIVE In order to assess the feasibility of upgrading STD management at the primary healthcare level in Rwanda, a project was piloted in a health centre and a hospital dispensary in two up country towns. METHODS Nurses trained in syndrome based management treated all patients with genitourinary complaints at first visit without laboratory results.(More)
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