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We have previously shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS), a means of a selectively modulating vestibular afferent input without affecting other inputs, can cause partial entrainment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Given that motion sickness causes sweating and pallor, we tested the hypothesis that sGVS also entrains skin(More)
We have previously demonstrated that selective modulation of vestibular inputs, via sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) delivered at 0.5-0.8 Hz, can cause partial entrainment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Given that we had seen interaction between the dynamic vestibular input and the normal cardiac-locked MSNA rhythm, we tested(More)
We tested the hypothesis that vestibular and cardiac rhythms compete to modulate muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in human subjects. Sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied across the mastoid processes at each subject's cardiac frequency and at ±0.1, ±0.2, ±0.3 and ±0.6 Hz. Cyclic modulation of MSNA was weakest at this central(More)
The sympathetic innervation of the skin not only primarily subserves thermoregulation, but has also been commandeered as a means of emotional expression. While the majority of brain imaging studies of emotion have utilised the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring changes in skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA), spontaneous fluctuations in the(More)
Studies previously performed in our laboratory have shown that sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (sGVS), a means of selectively modulating vestibular input without affecting other inputs, can cause partial entrainment of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 2.0 Hz. Here we test the effect of sGVS on(More)
Blood pressure is controlled on a beat-to-beat basis through fluctuations in heart rate and the degree of sympathetically-mediated vasoconstriction in skeletal muscles. By recording muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at the same time as performing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain, we aimed to identify cortical structures(More)
The sympathetic nervous system subserves many of the autonomic responses to mental stress and emotional processing. While peripheral markers of sympathetic activity can be obtained indirectly - by measuring heart rate, blood pressure, sweat release and skin blood flow - these effector-organ responses are slower compared to the directly recorded sympathetic(More)
The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring(More)
In thermoneutral conditions resting skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is related to the level of arousal and emotional state. The brain regions responsible for the generation of spontaneous SSNA are not known. In the present study we used concurrent recordings of SSNA and brain activity in awake humans to identify cortical and subcortical areas(More)
The sympathetic division of the nervous system is critical for maintaining both resting arterial pressure and for producing changes in regional perfusion required by behavioral state changes. A primary determinant of arterial pressure is the level of vasoconstriction within skeletal muscle. It is well established that there is a tight relationship between(More)
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