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Proteins in the B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family are key regulators of the apoptotic process. This family comprises proapoptotic and prosurvival proteins, and shifting the balance toward the latter is an established mechanism whereby cancer cells evade apoptosis. The therapeutic potential of directly inhibiting prosurvival proteins was unveiled with the(More)
In this paper, we propose a new method for constructing a bilinear pairing over (hyper)elliptic curves, which we call the R-ate pairing. This pairing is a generalization of the Ate and Ate<sub>i</sub> pairing, and can be computed more efficiently. Using the R-ate pairing, the loop length in Miller's algorithm can be as small as log (r<sup>1/phi(k)</sup>)(More)
Overexpression of prosurvival proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bcl-X L has been correlated with tumorigenesis and resistance to chemotherapy, and thus, the development of antagonists of these proteins may provide a novel means for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the discovery of 1 (ABT-737), which binds Bcl-2, Bcl-X L, and Bcl-w with high affinity,(More)
One of the primary objectives in the design of protein inhibitors is to shape the three-dimensional structures of small molecules to be complementary to the binding site of a target protein. In the course of our efforts to discover potent inhibitors of Bcl-2 family proteins, we found a unique folded conformation adopted by tethered aromatic groups in the(More)
Overexpression of the antiapototic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL provides a common mechanism through which cancer cells gain a survival advantage and become resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Inhibition of these prosurvival proteins is an attractive strategy for cancer therapy. We recently described the discovery of a selective Bcl-xL antagonist that(More)
Research to develop alternative electrode materials with high energy densities in Li-ion batteries has been actively pursued to satisfy the power demands for electronic devices and hybrid electric vehicles. This critical review focuses on anode materials composed of Group IV and V elements with their composites including Ag and Mg metals as well as(More)
The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a major role in the regulation of apoptosis, or programmed cell death. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic members of this family (Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Mcl-1) can render cancer cells resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and therefore these proteins are important targets for the development of new anti-cancer agents. Here(More)
The manipulation of the bandgap of graphene by various means has stirred great interest for potential applications. Here we show that treatment of graphene with xenon difluoride produces a partially fluorinated graphene (fluorographene) with covalent C-F bonding and local sp(3)-carbon hybridization. The material was characterized by Fourier transform(More)