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Dopamine receptor genes are under complex transcription control, determining their unique regional distribution in the brain. We describe here a zinc finger type transcription factor, designated dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF), which binds to GC and GT boxes in the D1A and D2 dopamine receptor promoters and effectively displaces Sp1 and Sp3 from(More)
The mu opioid receptor (MOR) is expressed in the central nervous system and specific cell lines with varying expression levels perhaps playing important roles. One of the neuronal-specific transcription regulators, neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), has been shown to repress the expression of neuron-specific genes in non-neuronal cells. However, we(More)
The pharmacological actions of morphine and morphine-like drugs such as heroin are mediated primarily through the mu opioid receptor. Previously a single strand DNA element of the mouse mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1) proximal promoter was found to be important for regulating Oprm1 in neuronal cells. To identify proteins binding to the single strand DNA(More)
The pharmacological action of morphine as a pain medication is mediated primarily through the mu-opioid receptor (MOR). With few exceptions, MOR is expressed in brain regions where opioid actions take place. The basis for this unique spatial expression of MOR remains undetermined. Recently, we reported that DNA methylation of the MOR promoter plays an(More)
Mu opioid receptor (MOR) expression is under temporal and spatial controls, but expression levels of the MOR gene are relatively low in vivo. In addition to transcriptional regulations, upstream AUGs (uAUGs) and open reading frames (uORFs) profoundly affect the translation of the primary ORF and thus the protein levels in several genes. The 5'-untranslated(More)
Previously, we reported that the neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) of mu opioid receptor (MOR) functions as a critical regulator to repress the MOR transcription in specific neuronal cells, depending on neuron-restriction silence factor (NRSF) expression levels [C.S.Kim, C.K.Hwang, H.S.Choi, K.Y.Song, P.Y.Law, L.N. Wei and H.H.Loh (2004) J. Biol.(More)
Dopamine receptor regulating factor (DRRF) is a novel transcription factor with unique anatomical distribution and functional properties, suggesting its importance in regulating dopaminergic neurotransmission. To gain insight into the in vivo function of this factor during embryogenesis, we studied its distribution at embryonic days E8-E16 in the mouse(More)
Previously, the existence of dual promoters was reported in mouse mu-opioid receptor (mor) gene, with mor transcription in the mouse brain predominantly initiated by the proximal promoter. In this study, we further analyzed the proximal promoter region, base pairs -450 to -249, to identify cis-DNA regulatory elements and trans-acting protein factors that(More)
Mu opioid receptor (MOR) is the main site of interaction for major clinical analgesics, particularly morphine. MOR expression is regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, the protein expression of the MOR gene is relatively low and the translational control of MOR gene has not been well studied. The 5'-untranslated region(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNA), a class of ~22-nucleotide RNA molecules, are important gene regulators that bind to the target sites of mRNAs to inhibit the gene expressions either through translational inhibition or mRNA destabilization. There are growing evidences that miRNAs have played several regulatory roles in opioid pharmacology. Like other research fields such(More)