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The c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway has been implicated in the immune response that is mediated by the activation and differentiation of CD4 helper T (TH) cells into TH1 and TH2 effector cells. JNK activity observed in wild-type activated TH cells was severely reduced in TH cells from Jnk1-/- mice. The Jnk1-/- T cells hyperproliferated,(More)
Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of(More)
T-lymphocyte activation and immune function are regulated by co-stimulatory molecules. CD28, a receptor for B7 gene products, has a chief role in initiating T-cell immune responses. CTLA4, which binds B7 with a higher affinity, is induced after T-cell activation and is involved in downregulating T-cell responses. The inducible co-stimulatory molecule(More)
The hallmark of T-cell activation is the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2). c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), a MAP kinase that phosphorylates c-Jun and other components of the AP-1 group of transcription factors, has been implicated in the activation of IL-2 expression. Previously, we found that T cells from mice deficient in the Jnk1 or Jnk2 gene can be(More)
The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse site-specific risk of second primary malignancies following 53 159 haematolymphoproliferative disorders (HLPD) diagnosed between 1958 and 1996. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of a second malignancy was calculated as the ratio of observed to expected numbers of second malignancies by applying site-,(More)
OBJECTIVES To compare cancer risks after in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin and to determine whether these 2 forms of cancer differ in prognostic significance. PATIENTS Subsequent events after in situ and invasive SCC were studied in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, in which cancer data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer(More)
We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database with 2060 childhood brain tumours diagnosed in the period 1958-1996 to analyse the risk of this tumour by parental cancers and in siblings of childhood brain tumour probands. Groups of patients were compared by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for brain tumours in offspring. 1.3% of brain(More)
Sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and then gamma- secretase gives rise to Abeta(1-40) (Abeta40), a major species of Abeta (beta-amyloid) produced by neurons under physiological conditions. Abeta(1-42) (Abeta42), a minor species of Abeta, is also produced by a similar but less understood mechanism of the gamma-secretase. The(More)