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Structural disruption of gut microbiota and associated inflammation are considered important etiological factors in high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Three candidate probiotic strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 (BA), were individually administered(More)
Resident gut microbes co-exist with transient bacteria to form the gut microbiota. Despite increasing evidence suggesting a role for transient microbes on gut microbiota function, the interplay between resident and transient members of this microbial community is poorly defined. We aimed to determine the extent to which a host's autochthonous gut microbiota(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I genes are among the most polymorphic genes characterized. The high level of polymorphism is essential for generating host immune responses. In humans, three distinct genomic loci encode human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes, allowing individuals to express up to six different HLA class I molecules. In cattle,(More)
Calorie restriction has been regarded as the only experimental regimen that can effectively lengthen lifespan in various animal models, but the actual mechanism remains controversial. The gut microbiota has been shown to have a pivotal role in host health, and its structure is mostly shaped by diet. Here we show that life-long calorie restriction on both(More)
Both genetic variations and diet-disrupted gut microbiota can predispose animals to metabolic syndromes (MS). This study assessed the relative contributions of host genetics and diet in shaping the gut microbiota and modulating MS-relevant phenotypes in mice. Together with its wild-type (Wt) counterpart, the Apoa-I knockout mouse, which has impaired glucose(More)
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APT) catalyzes the conversion of adenine and cytokinin bases to the corresponding nucleotides. An Arabidopsis thaliana mutant lacking the major APT isoform, APT1, is male sterile due to defects soon after meiosis. We have now used electron microscopy to define the effects of APT1 deficiency on pollen development to(More)
Disruption of the gut microbiota by high-fat diet (HFD) has been implicated in the development of obesity. It remains to be elucidated whether the HFD-induced shifts occur at the phylum level or whether they can be attributed to specific phylotypes; additionally, it is unclear to what extent the changes are reversible under normal chow (NC) feeding. One(More)
Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet(More)
Chronic inflammation induced by endotoxin from a dysbiotic gut microbiota contributes to the development of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Modification of gut microbiota by a diet to balance its composition becomes a promising strategy to help manage obesity. A dietary scheme based on whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods, and prebiotics(More)
This study monitored structural shifts of gut microbiota of rats developing precancerous mucosal lesions induced by carcinogen 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) treatment using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454 pyrosequencing on the 16S rRNA gene V3 region. Partial least square discriminant analysis of DGGE fingerprints showed that the(More)