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Host innate antiviral immunity is the first line of defense against viral infection, and is precisely regulated by thousands of genes at various stages, including microRNAs. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) was found to be up-regualted during viral infection, and influence the host immune response. Besides, the expression of miR-155, or its functional orthologs, may(More)
During viral infection, accumulation of viral proteins can cause stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and trigger the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis. The inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-dependent pathway is the most conserved of the three UPR signal pathways. Upon activation, IRE1 splices out an intron from the unspliced(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers a rapid induction of host innate immune responses. The type I interferon (IFN) signal pathway is a central aspect of host defense which induces a wide range of antiviral proteins to control infection of incoming pathogens. In some cases, viral invasion also induces DNA damage response, autophagy,(More)
UNLABELLED Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and its substrate mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) are core regulators of programmed necrosis. The elimination of pathogen-infected cells by programmed necrosis acts as an important host defense mechanism. Here, we report that human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 had opposite(More)
UNLABELLED The interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response is a central aspect of host defense; however, viruses have evolved multiple strategies to counteract IFN-mediated responses in order to successfully infect the host. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a typical human-restricted DNA virus, is capable of counteracting host immune responses via several(More)
The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host restriction factor that inhibits the replication of various viruses by degradation of certain viral mRNA. However, previous study demonstrated that ectopic expression of rat ZAP did not suppress the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an archetypal member of the alphaherpesvirus subfamily,(More)
Previous studies showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV), as a latency invader, attenuated host anti-viral immune responses. miRNAs were shown to be involved in HBV infection and HBV-related diseases, however, the precise role of miRNAs in HBV-mediated immunosuppression remains unclear. Here, we observed that down-regulated RIG-I like receptors might be one(More)
The DNA sensing pathway triggers innate immune responses against DNA virus infection, and NF-κB signaling plays a critical role in establishing innate immunity. We report here that the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) ubiquitin-specific protease (UL36USP), which is a deubiquitinase (DUB), antagonizes NF-κB activation, depending on its DUB activity. In this(More)
The interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeat 3 (IFIT3 or ISG60) is a host-intrinsic antiviral factor that restricts many instances of DNA and RNA virus replication. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a DNA virus bearing a large genome, can encode many viral proteins to counteract the host immune responses. However, whether IFIT3 plays a role(More)
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a key DNA sensor capable of detecting microbial DNA and activating the adaptor protein stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to interferon (IFN) production and host antiviral responses. Cells exhibited reduced type I IFN production in response to cytosolic DNA in the absence of cGAS. Although the(More)