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Activation of tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels contributes to action potential electrogenesis in neurons. Antisense oligonucleotide studies directed against Na(v)1.8 have shown that this channel contributes to experimental inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We report here the discovery of A-803467, a sodium channel blocker that potently blocks(More)
ATP-sensitive P2X(7) receptors are localized on cells of immunological origin including glial cells in the central nervous system. Activation of P2X(7) receptors leads to rapid changes in intracellular calcium concentrations, release of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and following prolonged agonist exposure, cytolytic plasma(More)
The vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1, TRPV1), which is a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily, is highly localized on peripheral and central processes of nociceptive afferent fibers. Activation of TRPV1 contributes to the pronociceptive effects of capsaicin, protons, heat, and various endogenous lipid agonists such as anandamide and(More)
Studies demonstrating the antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of cannabinoid CB(2) receptor activation have been largely derived from the use of receptor-selective ligands. Here, we report the identification of A-836339 [2,2,3,3-tetramethyl-cyclopropanecarboxylic acid [3-(2-methoxy-ethyl)-4,5-dimethyl-3H-thiazol-(2Z)-ylidene]-amide], a potent and(More)
The nonopioid actions of spinal dynorphin may promote aspects of abnormal pain after nerve injury. Mechanistic similarities have been suggested between opioid tolerance and neuropathic pain. Here, the hypothesis that spinal dynorphin might mediate effects of sustained spinal opioids was explored. Possible abnormal pain and spinal antinociceptive tolerance(More)
Despite the increasing interest in TRPA1 channel as a pain target, its role in cold sensation and body temperature regulation is not clear; the efficacy and particularly side effects resulting from channel blockade remain poorly understood. Here we use a potent, selective, and bioavailable antagonist to address these issues. A-967079 potently blocks human(More)
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been implicated in both inflammatory processes and nociceptive neurotransmission. To further investigate the role of IL-1 in different pain states, gene-disrupted mice lacking both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta genes (IL-1alphabeta (-/-)) were characterized in inflammatory, neuropathic, and post-operative pain(More)
Peripheral nerve injury produces signs of neuropathic pain including tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, sensory modalities which may be associated with different neuronal pathways. Studies of spinally-transected, nerve-injured rats have led to suggestions that thermal hyperalgesia may be mediated predominately through local spinal circuitry whereas(More)
Spinal nerve ligation produces signs of neuropathic pain in rats. Different neuronal pathways may underlie the abnormal sensory responses to thermal and tactile stimuli. Here, the possibility that local circuitry in the spinal cord and/or spinal-supraspinal loops might be involved in tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia of the hindpaws was(More)
The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) has been implicated in both inflammatory processes and nociceptive neurotransmission. Activation of P2X7 receptors is the mechanism by which ATP stimulates the rapid maturation and release of IL-1beta from macrophages and microglial cells. Recently, selective P2X7 receptor antagonists have been(More)