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When should a government provide a service in-house, and when should it contract out provision? We develop a model in which the provider can invest in improving the quality of service or reducing cost. If contracts are incomplete, the private provider has a stronger incentive to engage in both quality improvement and cost reduction than a government(More)
Jump-starting stock markets in transition economies has proved difficult. These countries lack effective legal governance structures and face severe information problems. Yet not all financial markets failed because of adverse conditions. Using China's initial stock market development as a case study, this article suggests that administrative governance can(More)
1 China's thirteen years of economic reforms (1979-1991) have achieved an average GNP annual growth rate of 8.6%. What makes China's reforms differ from those of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union is the sustained entry and expansion of the non-state sector. We argue that the organization structure of the economy matters. Unlike their unitary hierarchical(More)
This paper studies incentives and loss of control in a hierarchy model which combines and generalizes the models of Williamson, Calvo-Wellisz and Keren-Levhari. In our model of the hierarchy, the levels of effort from managers and workers, the wage scales, the span of control and, in particular, the total number of tiers are all endogenous. Using optimal(More)
Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is proposed to be an important virulence determinant of many pathogens. Although two cdt gene cluster loci have been identified in Haemophilus parasuis strain SH0165, the characteristics of CDTs associated with pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, three CDT-deficient mutants, cdt-1, cdt-2 and the double-knockout(More)
BACKGROUND Many bacteria efficiently degrade lignocellulose yet the underpinning genome-wide metabolic and regulatory networks remain elusive. Here we revealed the "cellulose degradome" for the model mesophilic cellulolytic bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum ATCC 35319, via an integrated analysis of its complete genome, its transcriptomes under glucose,(More)
Haemophilus parasuis outer membrane protein P2 (OmpP2), the most abundant protein in the outer membrane, has been identified as an antigenic protein and a potential virulence factor. To study the precise function of OmpP2, an ompP2-deficient mutant (ΔompP2) of a H. parasuis serovar 4 clinical strain SC096 was constructed by a modified natural transformation(More)