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Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the recently emerged Asian H5N1 virus (A/crow/Kyoto/53/2004) were generated. From five anti-hemagglutinin (HA) MAbs, four antibodies (3C11, 4C12, 3H12, and 3H4) broadly in vitro recognized and neutralized H5 subtypes, including H5N1. By contrast, the 4G6 MAb specifically reacted with H5N1-HA and not with H5N2- or(More)
In recent years, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 has raised serious worldwide concern about an influenza pandemic; however, the biology of H5N1 pathogenesis is largely unknown. To elucidate the mechanism of H5N1 pathogenesis, we prepared primary airway epithelial cells from alveolar tissues from 1-year-old pigs and measured the growth(More)
With the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic of 2003 and renewed attention on avian influenza viral pandemics, new surveillance systems are needed for the earlier detection of emerging infectious diseases. We applied a "next-generation" parallel sequencing platform for viral detection in nasopharyngeal and fecal samples collected during seasonal(More)
Since its emergence in April 2009, pandemic influenza A virus H1N1 (H1N1 pdm), a new type of influenza A virus with a triple-reassortant genome, has spread throughout the world. Initial attempts to diagnose the infection in patients using immunochromatography (IC) relied on test kits developed for seasonal influenza A and B viruses, many of which proved(More)
BACKGROUND In April 2009, a novel swine-derived influenza A virus (H1N1pdm) emerged and rapidly spread around the world, including Japan. It has been suggested that the virus can bind to both 2,3- and 2,6-linked sialic acid receptors in infected mammals, in contrast to contemporary seasonal H1N1 viruses, which have a predilection for 2,6-linked sialic acid.(More)
In this study, we show that the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) (A/crow/Kyoto/53/04 and A/chicken/Egypt/CL6/07) induced apoptosis in duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEF). In contrast, apoptosis was reduced among cells infected with low-pathogenic AIVs (A/duck/HK/342/78 [H5N2], A/duck/HK/820/80 [H5N3], A/wigeon/Osaka/1/01 [H7N7], and(More)
Considering the characteristic of vector geo-spatial data for digital watermarking, this paper presents a new watermarking algorithm for vector geo-spatial data based on integer wavelet transform. By the proposed algorithm, the line and surface coordinate points are decomposed by integer wavelet transform firstly, then watermark is embedded in the low(More)
Based on the self-characteristic of digital watermarking techniques and the multi-statistic theory, this paper makes a research on the watermark autocorrelation detection. First, the setting of detection threshold, the calculating of false alarm probability and missing detection probability are studied. Second, the relationship between the length of(More)
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