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CDNs play a critical and central part of today's Internet infrastructure. In this paper we conduct extensive and thorough measurements that accurately characterize the performance of two large-scale commercial CDNs: Akamai and Limelight. Our measurements include charting the CDNs (locating all their content and DNS servers), assessing their server(More)
BACKGROUND Memories are not created equally strong or persistent for different experiences. In Drosophila, induction of long-term memory (LTM) for aversive olfactory conditioning requires ten spaced repetitive training trials, whereas a single trial is sufficient for LTM generation in appetitive olfactory conditioning. Although, with the ease of genetic(More)
Our previous studies have shown that 100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) produced antinociception through the release of endogenous opioids (mainly dynorphin) and the activated kappa-opioid receptors in normal rats. Acupuncture is an effective treatment in relieving pain, but it develops tolerance after repeated administration. It has been reported that(More)
Jiaotaiwan (JTW), which is composed of Coptis chinensis (CC) and cinnamon (CIN), is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effects and mechanism of JTW in db/db mice. Results showed that JTW significantly decreased the level of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp1 protein suppresses host gene expression, including type I interferon production, by promoting host mRNA degradation and inhibiting host translation, in infected cells. We present evidence that nsp1 uses a novel, two-pronged strategy to inhibit host translation/gene expression. Nsp1 bound to the 40S(More)
SARS coronavirus (SCoV) nonstructural protein (nsp) 1, a potent inhibitor of host gene expression, possesses a unique mode of action: it binds to 40S ribosomes to inactivate their translation functions and induces host mRNA degradation. Our previous study demonstrated that nsp1 induces RNA modification near the 5'-end of a reporter mRNA having a short 5'(More)
The geometries of objects are deterministic in electromagnetic phenomena in all aspects of our world, ranging from imaging with spherical eyes to stealth aircraft with bizarre shapes. Nevertheless, shaping the physical geometry is often undesired owing to other physical constraints such as aero- and hydro-dynamics in the stealth technology. Here we(More)
— Perhaps the major technical problem in streaming media on demand over the Internet is the need to adapt to changing network conditions. Today's commercial streaming media systems rely on Multi Bit Rate coding for adaptation. However, existing algorithms are empirical and often fail in a dynamic network. In this paper, we extend our optimal coding rate(More)
— Perhaps the major technical problem in streaming media on demand over the Internet is the need to adapt to changing network conditions. In this paper, we investigate the problem of coding rate control , or equivalently quality adaptation, in response to changing network conditions such as the onset of congestion. Using the theory of optimal linear(More)
In this study, we hypothesized that total flavonoid of Litsea coreana leve (TFLC) protects against focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. TFLC (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) was administered orally to a rat model of focal ischemia/reperfusion injury, while the free radical scavenging agent, edaravone, was used as a positive control drug. Results of neurological(More)