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The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key developmental program that is often activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. We here report that the induction of an EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLEs) results in the acquisition of mesenchymal traits and in the expression of stem-cell markers. Furthermore, we show that(More)
The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential(More)
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is the prototypical member of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate cellular responses to thrombin and related proteases. Thrombin irreversibly activates PAR1 by cleaving the amino-terminal exodomain of the receptor, which exposes a tethered peptide ligand that binds the heptahelical bundle of the receptor(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are eukaryotic integral membrane proteins that modulate biological function by initiating cellular signalling in response to chemically diverse agonists. Despite recent progress in the structural biology of GPCRs, the molecular basis for agonist binding and allosteric modulation of these proteins is poorly understood.(More)
We have investigated the Ca(2+) dependence of vesicular secretion from the soma of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which secrete neuropeptides by exocytosis of dense-core vesicles. In patch-clamped somata of rat DRG neurons, we found a depolarization-induced membrane capacitance increase (DeltaC(m)) in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) and in the(More)
b s t r a c t China's consumer-to-consumer (C2C) electronic market has been growing very rapidly. The largest Chinese online auction company. Eachnet. was purchased by eBay but faced tough competition from a new Chinese online auction company, Taobao. Now Taobao's market share is twice as large as eBay's. Why has eBay quickly lost its market share to the(More)
Context. Although research in software engineering largely seeks to improve the practices and products of software development, many practices are based upon codification of expert knowledge, often with little or no underpinning from objective empirical evidence. Software design patterns seek to codify expert knowledge to share experience about successful(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate the role of activated microglia in the photoreceptor apoptosis of rd mice by identifying sequential events and factors associated with microglial activation, migration, and cytotoxicity during retinal degeneration. METHODS Photoreceptor apoptosis in rd mice at postnatal days (P)8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 was detected by terminal dUTP(More)
A novel metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR8, was identified by screening a mouse retina cDNA library. This receptor is most related to mGluR4, mGluR7, and mGluR6 (74%, 74%, and 70% identical amino acid residues, respectively). Similar to these receptors, stimulation by L-glutamate or L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-APB) of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)(More)