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Abeta1-42 is a self-associating peptide whose neurotoxic derivatives are thought to play a role in Alzheimer's pathogenesis. Neurotoxicity of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) has been attributed to its fibrillar forms, but experiments presented here characterize neurotoxins that assemble when fibril formation is inhibited. These neurotoxins comprise small(More)
Most agronomical traits exhibit quantitative variation, which is controlled by multiple genes and are environmentally dependent. To study the genetic variation of flowering time in Brassica napus, a DH population and its derived reconstructed F(2) population were planted in 11 field environments. The flowering time varied greatly with environments; 60% of(More)
Basal-cell carcinomas (BCCs) are the commonest human cancer. Insight into their genesis came from identification of mutations in the PATCHED gene (PTCH) in patients with the basal-cell nevus syndrome, a hereditary disease characterized by multiple BCCs and by developmental abnormalities. The binding of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) to its receptor, PTCH, is thought(More)
The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a wide range of important roles in plant growth and development, including embryogenesis, seed dormancy, root and shoot growth, transpiration, and stress tolerance. ABA and various abiotic stresses also activate the expression of numerous plant genes through undefined signaling pathways. To gain insight into ABA(More)
We estimated effective atomic contact energies (ACE), the desolvation free energies required to transfer atoms from water to a protein's interior, using an adaptation of a method introduced by S. Miyazawa and R. L. Jernigan. The energies were obtained for 18 different atom types, which were resolved on the basis of the way their properties cluster in the 20(More)
A set of 224 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a narrow cross between two fresh eaten types (S94 (Northern China type) × S06 (Northern European type)) (Cucumis sativus L.) was used to construct a genetic linkage map. With the RILs a 257-point genetic map was constructed including 206 SRAPs, 22 SSRs, 25 SCARs, 1 STS, and three economically(More)
Amino acid supply in brain is regulated by the activity of the large neutral amino acid transporter (LAT) at the brain capillary endothelial cell, which forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Bovine BBB poly(A)(+) RNA was isolated from 2.0 kg of fresh bovine brain and size fractionated on a sucrose density gradient, and a size-fractionated bovine BBB(More)
Synuclein was initially named for its localization in both presynaptic nerve terminals and portions of nuclear envelope. However, subsequent studies only confirmed the presynaptic localization of this protein in the brain; its nuclear localization in the neurons remained elusive. Here, two new monoclonal antibodies against alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) were(More)
A novel metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR8, was identified by screening a mouse retina cDNA library. This receptor is most related to mGluR4, mGluR7, and mGluR6 (74%, 74%, and 70% identical amino acid residues, respectively). Similar to these receptors, stimulation by L-glutamate or L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-APB) of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)(More)
GDC-0449 (2-chloro-N-(4-chloro-3-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-4-(methylsulfonyl)benzamide) is a potent, selective Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway inhibitor being developed for the treatment of various cancers. The in vivo clearance of GDC-0449 was estimated to be 23.0, 4.65, 0.338, and 19.3 ml min(-1) kg(-1) in mouse, rat, dog and monkeys, respectively. The(More)