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Cerebral organoids, three-dimensional cultures that model organogenesis, provide a new platform to investigate human brain development. High cost, variability, and tissue heterogeneity limit their broad applications. Here, we developed a miniaturized spinning bioreactor (SpinΩ) to generate forebrain-specific organoids from human iPSCs. These organoids(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ketoprofen, are widely used in clinical medicine. However, these drugs may damage the gastrointestinal mucosa. Some reports have suggested that intestinal diseases, such as ulcers, are associated with lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in the mucosa. Phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, are(More)
The perception of touch, including the direction of stimulus movement across the skin, begins with activation of low-threshold mechanosensory neurons (LTMRs) that innervate the skin. Here, we show that murine Aδ-LTMRs are preferentially tuned to deflection of body hairs in the caudal-to-rostral direction. This tuning property is explained by the finding(More)
Gouty arthritis is an inflammatory disease that is caused by an accumulation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals in the joints. MSU is capable of activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, leading to interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are major mediators(More)
Increasing oxidative stress is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of lung failure. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key element in redox homeostasis. Nrf2 regulates antioxidant-associated genes that are often the target of phytochemicals in chemoprevention. This study evaluated the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), which is(More)
Ketoprofen is widely used to alleviate pain and inflammation in clinical medicine; however, this drug may cause oxidative stress and lead to gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers. We previously reported that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in protecting cells against reactive oxygen species, and it facilitates the prevention(More)
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ketoprofen, are generally used to treat pain and inflammation and as pyretic agents in clinical medicine. However, the usage of these drugs may lead to oxidative injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. Camellia oil ( Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used in Taiwan and China as cooking oil. Traditional(More)
SCOPE Oxidative stress-aggravated chronic inflammatory diseases of the airway are well documented; hence, treatment with antioxidants to ameliorate oxidative stress might be an effective strategy to reduce airway complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of diallyl sulfide (DAS), which is a natural(More)
Femtosecond pump probe spectroscopy experiments were carried out to observe extensional modes of GaN nanorods. Different orders of extensional modes were generated and observed following the absorption of femtosecond light pulses. This observation confirms that with a diameter on the order of 100 nm, no mechanical change is expected compared to bulk GaN. We(More)