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PURPOSE To investigate the effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression in the retina during the early phase of optic nerve (ON) injury, and to examine whether intraperitoneal application of the NOS scavenger nitro-l-arginine(More)
Recently, we have demonstrated that F3/contactin and NB-3 are trans-acting extracellular ligands of Notch that promote differentiation of neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells into mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). Here, we demonstrate that human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) can be induced to differentiate into cells with myelinating(More)
PURPOSE To examine whether ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has a chemotactic effect on macrophages and whether macrophages are involved in CNTF-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival and axonal regeneration after optic nerve (ON) injury. METHODS Adult Fischer 344 rats received an autologous peripheral nerve graft onto transected ON for injured(More)
Continual generation of new neural cells from adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) is an important component of life-long brain plasticity. However, the intrinsic regulation of this process remains poorly defined. Here we report that Wip1 phosphatase, previously studied in oncogenesis, functions as a crucial physiological regulator in adult neural cell(More)
To test the hypothesis that monocular enucleation can cause a decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in subcortical visual centers, serial sections of superior colliculi and lateral geniculate nuclei from normal and enucleated rats were processed for NOS immunohistochemistry and NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry. Adjacent sections were also reacted for(More)
Our previous studies showed a differential distribution of the glutamatergic terminals in cytochrome oxidase-rich and -poor regions of the visual cortex. The NMDA type of glutamate receptors have been proposed to be involved in the activation of nitric oxide synthase to produce nitric oxide, the neurotransmitter. In the present study, we hypothesized that(More)
The activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been linked to excitatory input via NMDA receptors. We hypothesized that NOS-positive neurons that have NMDA receptors on their surface would have high levels of cytochrome oxidase (C.O.) as energy generator for membrane repolarization. In order to compare the distribution of these markers on the same(More)
In this study, we investigated whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) can achieve prolonged protection on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and whether site of axon injury modulates RGC response to neurotrophins. Two optic nerve (ON) injury paradigms, proximal and distal transections, were used. Autologous sciatic nerves(More)
Neurons are unique in having dendrites that extend far away from their cell bodies. Mitochondria located in the dendrites can be separated from the nucleus for long distances. The mechanism of bigenomic coordination is of particular importance to cytochrome oxidase (CO), which has subunits that are encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.(More)
The immune response after neural injury influences the survival and regenerative capacity of neurons. In the primary visual pathway, previous studies have described beneficial effects of macrophages and T-cells in promoting neural survival and axonal regeneration in some rat strains. However, the contributions of specific cell populations to these responses(More)