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BACKGROUND Combination of CHD (chromo-helicase-DNA binding protein)-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with electrophoresis (PCR/electrophoresis) is the most common avian molecular sexing technique but it is lab-intensive and gel-required. Gender determination often fails when the difference in length between the PCR products of CHD-Z and CHD-W genes(More)
Eagles are sexually monomorphic and therefore it is difficult to determine their gender, which is a crucial need for management purposes. In this study, we have developed an improved gender identification method by exploiting length differences between the Chromo-Helicase-DNA binding protein (CHD)-Z and CHD-W genes of Spilornis cheela hoya. By comparing DNA(More)
We report a DNA-based test that can be applied to any avian species so that the amplicon can be used in species identification. The need for the test arose from the requirement to enforce the Wildlife Conservation Act in Taiwan where over 150 avian species are protected. It is difficult to enforce the law if no gross morphology is present and hence there is(More)
Allopatry is conventionally considered the geographical mode of speciation for continental island organisms. However, strictly allopatric speciation models that assume the lack of postdivergence gene flow seem oversimplified given the recurrence of land bridges during glacial periods since the late Pliocene. Here, to evaluate whether a continental island(More)
Although founder effect speciation has been a popular theoretical model for the speciation of geographically isolated taxa, its empirical importance has remained difficult to evaluate due to the intractability of past demography, which in a founder effect speciation scenario would involve a speciational bottleneck in the emergent species and the complete(More)
The process of discovering species is a fundamental responsibility of systematics. Recently, there has been a growing interest in coalescent-based methods of species delimitation aimed at objectively identifying species early in the divergence process. However, few empirical studies have compared these new methods with character-based approaches for(More)
BACKGROUND The subtropical island of Taiwan is an area of high endemism and a complex topographic environment. Phylogeographic studies indicate that vicariance caused by Taiwan's mountains has subdivided many taxa into genetic phylogroups. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellites to test whether the evolutionary history of an endemic(More)
When geographic isolation drives speciation, concurrent termination of gene flow among genomic regions will occur immediately after the formation of the barrier between diverging populations. Alternatively, if speciation is driven by ecologically divergent selection, gene flow of selectively neutral genomic regions may go on between diverging populations(More)
This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber(More)
Research on island biotas has greatly contributed to the development of modern evolutionary and biogeographic theories. Until now, most studies have suggested that continental islands received their biotas directly from the adjacent mainland. However, only a few studies have indicated that species on continental islands might originate from other distantly(More)