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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulatory molecules in most eukaryotes and identification of their target mRNAs is essential for their functional analysis. Whereas conventional methods rely on computational prediction and subsequent experimental validation of target RNAs, we directly sequenced >28,000,000 signatures from the 5′ ends of polyadenylated(More)
Small RNAs play important regulatory roles in most eukaryotes, but only a small proportion of these molecules have been identified. We sequenced more than two million small RNAs from seedlings and the inflorescence of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Known and new microRNAs (miRNAs) were among the most abundant of the nonredundant set of more than(More)
This paper is concerned with the derivation of a progression of shadow-free image representations. First, we show that adopting certain assumptions about lights and cameras leads to a 1D, gray-scale image representation which is illuminant invariant at each image pixel. We show that as a consequence, images represented in this form are shadow-free. We then(More)
We report a draft sequence for the genome of the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori), covering 90.9% of all known silkworm genes. Our estimated gene count is 18,510, which exceeds the 13,379 genes reported for Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative analyses to fruitfly, mosquito, spider, and butterfly reveal both similarities and differences in gene content.
The Arabidopsis genome contains a highly complex and abundant population of small RNAs, and many of the endogenous siRNAs are dependent on RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase 2 (RDR2) for their biogenesis. By analyzing an rdr2 loss-of-function mutant using two different parallel sequencing technologies, MPSS and 454, we characterized the complement of miRNAs(More)
Small RNAs have several important biological functions. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) regulate mRNA stability and translation, and siRNAs cause post-transcriptional gene silencing of transposons, viruses and transgenes and are important in both the establishment and maintenance of cytosine DNA methylation. Here, we(More)
Identification of all expressed transcripts in a sequenced genome is essential both for genome analysis and for realization of the goals of systems biology. We used the transcriptional profiling technology called 'massively parallel signature sequencing' to develop a comprehensive expression atlas of rice (Oryza sativa cv Nipponbare). We sequenced(More)
Deep sequencing technologies such as Illumina, SOLiD, and 454 platforms have become very powerful tools in discovering and quantifying small RNAs in diverse organisms. Sequencing small RNA fractions always identifies RNAs derived from abundant RNA species such as rRNAs, tRNAs, snRNA, and snoRNA, and they are widely considered to be random degradation(More)
Recently, a method for removing shadows from colour images was developed (Finlayson et al. in IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28:59–68, 2006) that relies upon finding a special direction in a 2D chromaticity feature space. This “invariant direction” is that for which particular colour features, when projected into 1D, produce a greyscale image which(More)