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Humans observe various peoples' social suffering throughout their lives, but it is unknown whether the same brain mechanisms respond to people we are close to and strangers' social suffering. To address this question, we had participant's complete functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while observing a friend and stranger experience social exclusion.(More)
Empathy has been proposed to be a proximate mechanism underlying altruistic behavior. However, both empathy and altruistic behavior differ between human individuals with low and high socioeconomic status. Here we investigated whether subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) modulates the relationship between neural activity to perceived pain in others and(More)
Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian(More)
Neural activity in the social brain network varies across individuals with different cultural traits and different genetic polymorphisms. It remains unknown whether a specific genetic polymorphism may influence the association between cultural traits and neural activity in the social brain network. We tested whether the serotonin transporter promoter(More)
BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, which selectively block serotonin transporter (5-HTT) activity, are widely used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Numerous neuroimaging studies have examined the effects of SSRIs on emotional processes. However, there are considerable inter-individual(More)
Cognitive distortion in depression is characterized by enhanced negative thoughts about both environment and oneself. Carriers of a risk allele for depression, that is, the short (s) allele of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), exhibit amygdala hyperresponsiveness to negative environmental stimuli relative to homozygous long variant(More)
Many natural products contain a C = C double bond through which various other derivatives can be prepared; the stereochemical identity of the alkene can be critical to the biological activities of such molecules. Catalytic ring-closing metathesis (RCM) is a widely used method for the synthesis of large unsaturated rings; however, cyclizations often proceed(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and(More)
Cultural differences are generally explained by how people see themselves in relation to social interaction partners. While Western culture emphasizes independence, East Asian culture emphasizes interdependence. Despite this focus on social interactions, it remains elusive how people from different cultures process feedback on their own (and on others')(More)
Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults,(More)