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Humans observe various peoples' social suffering throughout their lives, but it is unknown whether the same brain mechanisms respond to people we are close to and strangers' social suffering. To address this question, we had participant's complete functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while observing a friend and stranger experience social exclusion.(More)
Empathy has been proposed to be a proximate mechanism underlying altruistic behavior. However, both empathy and altruistic behavior differ between human individuals with low and high socioeconomic status. Here we investigated whether subjective socioeconomic status (SSS) modulates the relationship between neural activity to perceived pain in others and(More)
We investigated whether and how temporary shifts in self-construals modulate neural correlates of pain perception. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to painful and non-painful electrical stimulations were recorded from adults after being primed with independent and interdependent self-construals. Electrical stimulations to the left hand elicited two negative(More)
Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian(More)
Cognitive distortion in depression is characterized by enhanced negative thoughts about both environment and oneself. Carriers of a risk allele for depression, that is, the short (s) allele of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), exhibit amygdala hyperresponsiveness to negative environmental stimuli relative to homozygous long variant(More)
Neural activity in the social brain network varies across individuals with different cultural traits and different genetic polymorphisms. It remains unknown whether a specific genetic polymorphism may influence the association between cultural traits and neural activity in the social brain network. We tested whether the serotonin transporter promoter(More)
BACKGROUND Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as citalopram, which selectively block serotonin transporter (5-HTT) activity, are widely used in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Numerous neuroimaging studies have examined the effects of SSRIs on emotional processes. However, there are considerable inter-individual(More)
Self-construal priming modulates human behavior and associated neural activity. However, the neural activity associated with the self-construal priming procedure itself remains unknown. It is also unclear whether and how self-construal priming affects neural activity prior to engaging in a particular task. To address this gap, we scanned Chinese adults,(More)
Humans update their beliefs upon feedback and, accordingly, modify their behaviors to adapt to the complex, changing social environment. However, people tend to incorporate desirable (better than expected) feedback into their beliefs but to discount undesirable (worse than expected) feedback. Such optimistic updating has evolved as an advantageous mechanism(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the association between oxytocin receptor polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) and emotion-related behavioral/psychological tendencies differs between individuals from East Asian and Western cultures. What remains unresolved is which specific dimension of cultural orientations interacts with OXTR rs53576 to shape these tendencies and(More)