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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological activities. It induces potent growth-inhibitory responses in normal cells but promotes migration and invasion of cancer cells. Smads mediate the TGF-beta responses. TGF-beta binding to the cell surface receptors leads to the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in their C terminus as(More)
Despite recent advances in instrumentation and analytical strategies for identification and quantitation of protein phosphorylation, a highly specific enrichment protocol is still a challenge in large-scale studies. Here, we report a simple pH/acid control method that addresses the poor specificity seriously criticized in IMAC. Detailed evaluation of the(More)
Constructing a Chinese digital library, especially for a historical article archiving, is often bothered by the small character sets supported by the current computer systems. This paper is aimed at resolving the unencoded character problem with a practical and composite approach for Chinese digital libraries. The proposed approach consists of the glyph(More)
TGF-beta (transforming growth factor-beta) induces a cytostatic response in most normal cell types. In cancer cells, however, it often promotes metastasis, and its high expression is correlated with poor prognosis. In the present study, we show that S100A4, a metastasis-associated protein, also called metastatin-1, can physically and functionally interact(More)
The okaramines are a class of complex indole alkaloids isolated from Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Their potent insecticidal activity arises from selectively activating glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in invertebrates, not affecting human ligand-gated anion channels. Okaramines B (1) and D (2) contain a polycyclic skeleton, including an(More)
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