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The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has emerged as an archetype of eukaryotic cell biology. Here we show that S. cerevisiae is also a model for the evolution of cooperative behavior by revisiting flocculation, a self-adherence phenotype lacking in most laboratory strains. Expression of the gene FLO1 in the laboratory strain S288C restores(More)
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) made in response to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) or nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of short-term changes in smooth muscle tone and longer-term responses to chronic drug treatment or proliferative signals. The ability of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to utilize different combinations of phosphodiesterase (PDE) isozymes allows(More)
Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases, such as atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, infectious diseases, and cancer. Although steroids and cyclooxygenase inhibitors are effective antiinflammatory therapeutical agents, they may cause serious side effects. Therefore, developing unique antiinflammatory agents without(More)
Memories are thought to be sparsely encoded in neuronal networks, but little is known about why a given neuron is recruited or allocated to a particular memory trace. Previous research shows that in the lateral amygdala (LA), neurons with increased CREB are selectively recruited to a fear memory trace. CREB is a ubiquitous transcription factor implicated in(More)
Atherosclerosis involves cellular immune responses and altered vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. Nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP is uniquely capable of inhibiting key processes in atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of NO/cGMP and their molecular mechanisms in the regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in VSMCs. We found(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways mutually regulate each other by multiple mechanisms. Ang II regulates the expression of NO synthase and NO production, whereas NO downregulates the Ang II type I (AT1) receptor. In addition, downstream effectors of Ang II and NO signaling pathways also interact with each other. A feedback(More)
Inflammation and oxidative stress are pathogenic mediators of many diseases, but molecules that could be therapeutic targets remain elusive. Inflammation and matrix degradation in the vasculature are crucial for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. Cyclophilin A (CypA, encoded by Ppia) is highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) causes high early mortality in pneumococcal pneumonia, which is characterized by acute lung injury (ALI). The molecular mechanisms underlying ALI and the high early mortality remain unknown. Despite recent studies that identify deubiquitinating enzyme cylindromatosis (CYLD) as a key regulator for T cell development,(More)
More than 50 years ago, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the carotid artery were shown to undergo dedifferentiation on ligation injury. Since this classical study, scores of research groups have used a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems, as well as numerous clinical studies, to demonstrate the conversion of normally contractile vascular SMCs to a(More)
Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase originally identified as a transforming gene product in human myeloid leukemia cells. Previously, we showed that Axl expression correlated with neointima formation in balloon-injured rat carotid, and that Axl expression was highly regulated by angiotensin II. In the present study we tested the mechanisms by which Axl(More)