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Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL) 1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), possess a wide range of biological actions in various tissues. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that these cytokines are involved in inflammatory reactions in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Although many studies have demonstrated that IL-1, TNF, and(More)
The inactive X chromosome of female mammals displays several properties of heterochromatin including late replication, histone H4 hypoacetylation, histone H3 hypomethylation at lysine-4, and methylated CpG islands. We show that cre-Lox-mediated excision of 21 kb from both Xist alleles in female mouse fibroblasts led to the appearance of two histone(More)
During mitosis, chromosomes are highly condensed and transcription is silenced globally. One explanation for transcriptional repression is the reduced accessibility of transcription factors. To directly test this hypothesis and to investigate the dynamics of mitotic chromatin, we evaluate the exchange kinetics of several RNA polymerase I transcription(More)
Human polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) is a dual specificity 5'-DNA kinase/3'-DNA phosphatase, with roles in base excision repair, DNA single-strand break repair and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ); yet precisely how PNKP functions in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) remains unclear. We demonstrate that PNKP is phosphorylated by the(More)
Regulation of gene activity is mediated by alterations in chromatin organization. In addition, chromatin organization may be governed in part by interactions with structural components of the nucleus. The nuclear lamins comprise the lamina and a variety of nucleoplasmic assemblies that together are major structural components of the nucleus. Furthermore,(More)
Inflammatory reactions occurring in the brain after ischemia may contribute to secondary damage. In the present study effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia, on focal embolic brain ischemia have been examined. Focal ischemic injury was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral(More)
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it plays a significant role not only in synaptic transmission but also in acute and chronic neuropathologies including stroke. Presently, four receptors for glutamate have been identified and the NMDA receptor family is the most intensively studied. A number of NMDA receptor(More)
Multiple meta-analyses have been published to compare intramedullary nail and plate for treating humeral shaft fractures; however, results are discordant.The purposes of current study were to perform a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing intramedullary nail and plate fixation for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures, to appraise the(More)
Simvastatin is cholesterol lowering agent and also a modulator of cytokine in the nervous system. The functional significance and neuroprotectiove mechanism of simvastatins in ischemic brain injury is controversial. The purpose of study is to evaluate the effect of simvastatin on ischemic brain injury and to investigate the perfusion capability of brain(More)
Cerebral thromboembolism is the most common type of acute stroke in the clinical setting. In the present study, we have described a focal embolic model of cerebral ischemia in rat. Cerebral ischemic injury in two different sizes was induced by injection of two different volumes of pre-formed clots into the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Neurological deficits(More)