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Induction of skin appendages involves a cascade of molecular events. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of peptide growth factors is involved in cell proliferation and morphogenesis. We explored the role of the FGFs during skin appendage induction using developing chicken feather buds as a model. FGF-1, FGF-2, or FGF-4 was added directly to the(More)
We studied the roles of Notch, Delta, and Serrate in vertebrate epithelial appendage morphogenesis using feather as a model and found the following. (1) C-Notch-1, C-Delta-1, and C-Serrate-1 are not expressed at the early placode stage and are therefore not involved in the determination of bud versus interbud compartments. (2) From symmetric short buds to(More)
How do vertebrate epithelial appendages form from the flat epithelia? Following the formation of feather placodes, the previously radially symmetrical primordia become anterior-posterior (A-P) asymmetrical and develop a proximo-distal (P-D) axis. Analysis of the molecular heterogeneity revealed a surprising parallel of molecular profiles in the A-P feather(More)
To analyse the morphogenic events during skin appendage formation, it is important to have an animal model that offers distinct patterns at various stages of development and is accessible to analysis using state of the art technology. The avian integument is such a model. Combining experimental embryologic approaches, organ cultures, and gene transduction(More)
Botulinum toxin A (Btx) injections and supervised exercise are often used concurrently to treat calf muscle spasticity in children. This study has analyzed the early effects of Btx-induced paralysis and increased activity by voluntary wheel running on cell growth-related processes in juvenile rat gastrocnemius muscle. Btx injection at 29 days of age(More)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of acquiring emerging infections while caring for patients, as has been shown in the recent SARS and swine flu epidemics. Using SARS as an example, we determined the effectiveness of infection control measures (ICMs) by logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM), a quantitative methodology that can(More)
Genomic DNA that has been digested with a restriction endonuclease and fractionated by electrophoresis on an agarose gel can be recovered on glass-fiber filters by a new blotting scheme. The DNA fragments in each fraction are then digested with a second restriction nuclease and then separated on a slab gel, resulting in a two-dimensional display of the(More)
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