Learn More
Orientation preferences for visual patterns can be conditioned in tethered flies (Drosophila melanogaster) at the flight simulator. In a reversal conditioning procedure using heat as reinforcement, flies can be trained to successively prefer different flight orientations with respect to the patterns. As in many learning paradigms, conditioned responses are(More)
Memory consolidation in Drosophila was investigated using cold anesthesia- and hypoxia-induced amnesia. Individual flies were operantly trained to avoid the specific flight orientations with respect to the landmarks surrounding them when paired with heat reinforcement at a flight simulator. Cold anesthesia, introduced immediately after training, exerted a(More)
The nutritional effects on operant visual learning behavior were investigated in a flight simulator. Operant visual learning and memory formation were normal in Drosophila (S-flies) reared on standard medium, but absent in flies (P-flies) raised on Peking medium. S- and P-flies were transferred to the alternative medium soon after hatching and their progeny(More)
Recent work on operant visual learning and memory in Drosophila has suggested at least three distinct memory phases. Trying to disrupt memory pharmacologically, we fed flies with ouabain or the depolarizing drugs potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride (LiCl) and monosodium glutamate for some specific time before training. The depolarizing drugs(More)
Previous work on classical olfactory learning and memory in flies has suggested at least four distinct phases of memory consolidation. Similarly, our behavioral and pharmacological analyses also provided clear evidence for at least four pharmacologically distinct memory phases in flies after operant conditioning. Anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) is present(More)
Using the flight simulator system, the operant conditioned visual flight orientation behavior in Drosophila was studied. It was demonstrated that the visual learning performance is associated with age; flies learn more reliably at 3-4 days than at 1-2 days of age; the cAMP level of brain is also increasing with age; the brain cAMP content of nonlearner(More)
A new conditioning procedure, developed for the operant learning paradigm at the flight simulator, leads to stronger learning scores in wild-type flies. This procedure produces mean learning indices up to LI = 0.52. The heat-avoidance behavior acquired during training is very difficult to extinguish during extinction. Memory decays quickly during the first(More)
OBJECTIVE Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD(More)
K(+) currents in cultured Drosophila larval neurons have been classified into four categories according to their inactivation time constants, relative amplitude, and response to K(+) channel blockers 4-AP and tetraethylammonium. The percentage (65%) of neurons displaying K(+) currents which were reduced to 30% in amplitude by 5 mM cyclic adenosine(More)