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At high ambient temperature, plants display dramatic stem elongation in an adaptive response to heat. This response is mediated by elevated levels of the phytohormone auxin and requires auxin biosynthesis, signaling, and transport pathways. The mechanisms by which higher temperature results in greater auxin accumulation are unknown, however. A basic(More)
Axonal voltage-gated potassium (Kv1) channels regulate action-potential invasion and hence transmitter release. Although evolutionarily conserved, what mediates their axonal targeting is not known. We found that Kv1 axonal targeting required its T1 tetramerization domain. When fused to unpolarized CD4 or dendritic transferrin receptor, T1 promoted their(More)
Axonal Kv1 channels regulate action potential propagation-an evolutionarily conserved function important for the control of motor behavior as evidenced from the linkage of human Kv1 channel mutations to myokymia/episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) and the Shaker mutant phenotype in Drosophila. To search for the machinery that mediates axonal targeting of Kv1(More)
Most eukaryotic cells express small regulatory RNAs. The purpose of one class, the somatic endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs), remains unclear. Here, we show that the endo-siRNA pathway promotes odor adaptation in C. elegans AWC olfactory neurons. In adaptation, the nuclear Argonaute NRDE-3, which acts in AWC, is loaded with siRNAs targeting odr-1, a gene(More)
Recently developed MIMO array systems, which use spatially separated but colocated scalar-antennas in both transmit and receive modes, can fully exploit waveform diversity and spatial diversity to offer significant performance improvement over traditional phased-array based systems. Unlike these structure, in this paper, we present a MIMO array system that(More)
Ca2+ stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type VIII (ACVIII) occurs through loosely bound calmodulin. However, where calmodulin binds in ACVIII and how the binding activates this cyclase have not yet been investigated. We have located two putative calmodulin-binding sites in ACVIII. One site is located at the N terminus as revealed by overlay assays; the other(More)
Precise localization of axonal ion channels is crucial for proper electrical and chemical functions of axons. In myelinated axons, Kv1 (Shaker) voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are clustered in the juxtaparanodal regions flanking the node of Ranvier. The clustering can be disrupted by deletion of various proteins in mice, including contactin-associated(More)
Adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5) is sensitive to both high and low affinity inhibition by Ca(2+). This property provides a sensitive feedback mechanism of the Ca(2+) entry that is potentiated by cAMP in sources where AC5 is commonly expressed (e.g. myocardium). Remarkably little is known about the molecular mechanism whereby Ca(2+) inhibits AC5. Because(More)
Precise localization of various ion channels into proper subcellular compartments is crucial for neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Axonal K(+) channels that are activated by depolarization of the membrane potential participate in the repolarizing phase of the action potential, and hence regulate action potential firing patterns, which encode(More)
The long non-coding RNA MEG3 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in a number of malignant tumors including gastric cancer. Several studies have shown that the regulation of MEG3 may attribute to the promoter hypermethylation. However, the mechanism of MEG3 regulation in gastric cancer is still not well understood. MiR-148a can suppress gastric(More)