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Axonal voltage-gated potassium (Kv1) channels regulate action-potential invasion and hence transmitter release. Although evolutionarily conserved, what mediates their axonal targeting is not known. We found that Kv1 axonal targeting required its T1 tetramerization domain. When fused to unpolarized CD4 or dendritic transferrin receptor, T1 promoted their(More)
Axonal Kv1 channels regulate action potential propagation-an evolutionarily conserved function important for the control of motor behavior as evidenced from the linkage of human Kv1 channel mutations to myokymia/episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) and the Shaker mutant phenotype in Drosophila. To search for the machinery that mediates axonal targeting of Kv1(More)
Precise localization of axonal ion channels is crucial for proper electrical and chemical functions of axons. In myelinated axons, Kv1 (Shaker) voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are clustered in the juxtaparanodal regions flanking the node of Ranvier. The clustering can be disrupted by deletion of various proteins in mice, including contactin-associated(More)
Adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5) is sensitive to both high and low affinity inhibition by Ca(2+). This property provides a sensitive feedback mechanism of the Ca(2+) entry that is potentiated by cAMP in sources where AC5 is commonly expressed (e.g. myocardium). Remarkably little is known about the molecular mechanism whereby Ca(2+) inhibits AC5. Because(More)
Precise localization of various ion channels into proper subcellular compartments is crucial for neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission. Axonal K(+) channels that are activated by depolarization of the membrane potential participate in the repolarizing phase of the action potential, and hence regulate action potential firing patterns, which encode(More)
Post-transcriptional modification of RNA is an important determinant of RNA quality control, translational efficiency, RNA-protein interactions and stress response. This is illustrated by the observation of toxicant-specific changes in the spectrum of tRNA modifications in a stress-response mechanism involving selective translation of codon-biased mRNA for(More)
Ca2+ stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type VIII (ACVIII) occurs through loosely bound calmodulin. However, where calmodulin binds in ACVIII and how the binding activates this cyclase have not yet been investigated. We have located two putative calmodulin-binding sites in ACVIII. One site is located at the N terminus as revealed by overlay assays; the other(More)
Ca(2+)-sensitive adenylyl cyclases may act as early integrators of the two major second messenger-signaling pathways mediated by Ca(2+) and cAMP. Ca(2+) stimulation of adenylyl cyclase type I (ACI) and adenylyl cyclase type VIII (ACVIII) is mediated by calmodulin and the site on these adenylyl cyclases that interacts with calmodulin has been defined. By(More)
Action potentials (APs) propagating along axons require the activation of voltage-gated Na(+) (Nav) channels. How Nav channels are transported into axons is unknown. We show that KIF5/kinesin-1 directly binds to ankyrin-G (AnkG) to transport Nav channels into axons. KIF5 and Nav1.2 channels bind to multiple sites in the AnkG N-terminal domain that contains(More)
Kv3 (Shaw) channels regulate rapid spiking, transmitter release and dendritic integration of many central neurons. Crucial to functional diversity are the complex targeting patterns of channel proteins. However, the targeting mechanisms are not known. Here we report that the axon-dendrite targeting of Kv3.1 is controlled by a conditional interaction of a(More)