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Stem cells offer great promise to help understand the normal mechanisms of tissue renewal, regeneration, and repair, and also for development of cell-based therapies to treat patients after tissue injury. Most adult tissues contain stem cells and progenitor cells that contribute to homeostasis, remodeling, and repair. Multiple stem and progenitor cell(More)
Although bone has great capacity for repair, there are a number of clinical situations (fracture non-unions, spinal fusions, revision arthroplasty, segmental defects) in which auto- or allografts attempt to augment bone regeneration by promoting osteogenesis. Critical failures associated with current grafting therapies include osteonecrosis and limited(More)
Biological activity can be added to synthetic scaffolds by incorporating functional peptide sequences that provide enzyme-mediated degradation sites, facilitate cellular adhesion or stimulate signaling pathways. Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate is a popular synthetic base for tissue engineering scaffolds because it creates a hydrophilic environment that can(More)
Tissue engineering utilizes scaffolds containing chondrogenic cells to promote cartilage development at a clinically relevant scale, yet there remains a limited understanding of the optimal conditions for inducing differentiation and matrix production. We investigated how cell density and temporal exposure to chondrogenic factors impacted chondrogenesis of(More)
Systematic advancements in the field of musculoskeletal tissue engineering require clear communication about the mechanical environments that promote functional tissue growth. To support the rapid discovery of effective mechanostimulation protocols, this study developed and validated a mechanoactive transduction and evaluation bioreactor (MATE). The MATE(More)
Cartilage tissue engineering aims to replace damaged or diseased tissue with a functional regenerate that restores joint function. Scaffolds are used to deliver cells and facilitate tissue development, but they can also interfere with the structural assembly of the cartilage matrix. Biodegradable scaffolds have been proposed as a means to improve matrix(More)
Fracture healing is critically dependent upon an adequate vascular supply. The normal rate for fracture delayed or non-union is estimated to be between 10 and 15%, and annual fracture numbers are approximately 15 million cases per year. However, when there is decreased vascular perfusion to the fracture, incidence of impaired healing rises dramatically to(More)
Assessing modes of skeletal repair is essential for developing therapies to be used clinically to treat fractures. Mechanical stability plays a large role in healing of bone injuries. In the worst-case scenario mechanical instability can lead to delayed or non-union in humans. However, motion can also stimulate the healing process. In fractures that have(More)
Fracture healing is a unique multifaceted process requiring the presence of cells, molecular mediators, and angiogenic factors. The state of inflammation dominates the initial phase, but the ideal magnitude and duration of the process for an optimal outcome remains obscure. Biological response modifiers, such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations, have(More)
Critical failures associated with current engineered bone grafts involve insufficient induction of osteogenesis of the implanted cells and lack of vascular integration between graft scaffold and host tissue. This study investigated the combined effects of surface microtextures and biochemical supplements to achieve osteogenic differentiation of human(More)