Chein-Chi Chang

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The spectral angle mapper (SAM) has been widely used in multispectral and hyperspectral image analysis to measure spectral similarity between substance signatures for material identification. It has been shown that the SAM is essentially the Euclidean distance when the spectral angle is small. Most recently, a stochastic measure, called the spectral(More)
—One of the challenges in remote sensing image processing is subpixel detection where the target size is smaller than the ground sampling distance, therefore, embedded in a single pixel. Under such a circumstance, these targets can be only detected spectrally at the subpixel level, not spatially as ordinarily conducted by classical image processing(More)
Spectral signature coding is an effective means of characterizing spectral features. This paper develops a rather different encoding concept, called progressive signature coding ͑PSC͒, which encodes a signature in a hierarchical manner. More specifically, it progressively encodes a spectral signature in multiple stages; each of these stages captures(More)
This is a literature review for the year 2015 and contains information specifically associated with suspended growth processes including activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and sequencing batch reactors. The review encompasses modeling and kinetics, nutrient removal, system design and operation. Compared to past reviews, many topics show(More)
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