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Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) derived from mammalian species are valuable tools for modeling human disease, including retinal degenerative eye diseases that result in visual loss. Restoration of vision has focused on transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) to the retina. Here we used(More)
BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem cells (HESC) readily differentiate into an apparently haphazard array of cell types, corresponding to all three germ layers, when their culture conditions are altered, for example by growth in suspension as aggregates known as embryoid bodies (EBs). However, this diversity of differentiation means that the efficiency of(More)
The pluripotent human embryonic carcinoma cell line NTERA2 readily differentiates into neurons when exposed to retinoic acid in vitro. These neurons show characteristic morphology with long processes and they express neuronal markers TUJ-1 and NeuN. NTERA2-derived neurons can regulate Ca2+ signalling through ionotropic glutamate (iGluR) and muscarinic(More)
Genetic modification is continuing to be an essential tool in studying stem cell biology and in setting forth potential clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs). While improvements in several gene delivery methods have been described, transfection remains a capricious process for HESCs, and has not yet been reported in human induced(More)
Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biodegradable metallic material for applications in cellular/tissue engineering and biomedical implants/devices. To advance clinical translation of Mg-based biomaterials, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of Mg degradation on the proliferation and pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We used hESCs as the(More)
Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously(More)
Sustained transgene expression is required for the success of cell transplant-based gene therapy. Most widely used are lentiviral-based vectors which integrate into the host genome and thereby maintain sustained transgene expression. This requires integration into the nuclear genome, and potential risks include activation of oncogenes and inactivation of(More)
The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is notable in terms of complexity and sophistication, but also for a very limited regenerative ability in the face of injury and disease. While it is not uncommon to find remarkable regenerative capabilities in the CNS tissues of fish and amphibian species, similar findings are much more limited in reptiles and(More)
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